Rice is the world’s third most important cereal crop following wheat and corn, based on production volume. Global rice production reached 478,5 million tons in 2014/15 and it is expected to fall down to 472,3 million tons in 2015/16. Almost 40 million tons of world rice production takes part in international trade.
Rice agriculture was started firstly in India in 3.000’s B.C., and then it was spread to the West. Its arrival to Europe falls on Medieval. It is thought that it came to Turkey from the south 500 years ago.
We examined data which were explained by institutions researching production, consumption and commercial loop of the grain products in the world to understand worldwide importance of rice and its place among agricultural products, compared them and we also prepared an evaluation for you.
According to the report published by US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in January, global rice production reached 478,5 million tons in 2014/15 and it is expected to fall down to 472,3 million tons in 2015/16. According to the estimates by USDA, global rice production will resume its rise in 2016/17 and reach 480 million tons in January.
According to the report published by International Grain Council (ICG) on 19th January 2017, global rice production was 480 million tons in 2014/15 and it is expected to be 472 million tons in 2015/16. According to the estimates of ICG, global rice production will go up to 482 million tons in January of 2016/17 season. The data of USDA is very similar to the figures published by ICG.
According to the data of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 733,2 million tons of rice was produced in 2012. In 2013, the production increased by a record rate, reaching 739 million tons, and 2014, it continued increasing and peaked to 740 million tons.
The fluctuations in global rice consumption go in parallel to the fluctuations in its production. According to the estimates by USDA, global rice consumption was 478 million tons in 2014/15, and it is estimated to decrease to 472 million tons in 2015/16. And it is expected to go up again in 2016/17, reaching 481,5 million tons.
There is a slight difference in the estimates of USDA with regard to global rice consumption. According to the reports of ICG, global rice consumption was 478 million tons in 2014/15, and it is estimated to decrease to 473 million tons in 2015/16. And it is expected to go up again in 2016/17, reaching 482 million tons. . According to the reports of FAO in December 2016, utilization of rice amount is 397,3 million tons in 2015/16 season for food, feed and other uses. FAO predicted to realize 402,5 million tons for 2016/17 season.
WORLD RICE PRODUCTION AND LEADER PRODUCER COUNTRIES
The highest rice production in the world by years belongs to China. According to the data of USDA; China provides 144,5 million tons of world rice production which was 478,5 million tons in 2014/15 season. Production amount of China is estimated to increase 145,7 million tons in 2015/16 season. China’s production amount is predicted to be 144,8 million tons in 2016/17 season. India comes second after China in terms of rice production. Rice production of India which was 105 million tons in 2014/15 season is estimated to decrease to 104 million tons in season 2015/16. India’s production amount of rice is predicted to increase 106,5 million tons by 2 million tons rising in 2016/17 season.
China and India meet alone more than half of world rice production which was 472 million tons (2015/16). Indonesia follows them with 36 million tons of production. Bangladesh coming right after Indonesia is estimated to produce 34,5 million tons in 2015/16 season.
Vietnam with 27,4 million tons, Tailand with 15,8 million tons, Burma with 12,2 million tons, The Philippines with 11,3 million tons, Japan with 7,6 million tons and Brazil with 7,2 million tons follow Bangladesh.
WORLD RICE CONSUMPTION AND MAJOR CONSUMER COUNTRIES
Currently, China is the biggest consumer of rice as in the production of rice. In China, consumption was 144,5 million tons in 2014/15 season. But with 500 thousand tons decrease, rice consumption of China was decreased 144 million tons in 2015/16 season. The consumption amount of China for 2016/17 season is predicted to remain same as 2015/16 season.
The largest consumption amount after China belongs to India. The consumption amount of India is 98 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is estimated to decrease 93 million tons by declining 5 million tons. The predicted consumption amount of India is 97 million tons in 2016/17 season.
Indonesia come after China and India in rice consumption. The consumption amount of Indonesia for 2014/15 season is 38,3 million tons. The consumption amount of Indonesia for 2015/16 is estimated to decrease 37,9 million tons. Indonesia has 37,5 million tons predicted consumption amount for 2016/17 season.
Bangladesh with 35 million tons, Vietnam with 22,6 million tons, Philippines with 13 million tons, Burma with 11 million tons, and Thailand with 10,6 million tons and Japan with 8,5 million tons follow Indonesia in world price consumption.
WORLD RICE TRADE
Almost 40 million tons of world rice production takes part in international trade. According to the data of USDA; the largest share in rice trade for 2014/15 season belongs to India with 11 million tons. India rice export is 10 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is predicted to remain same as 10 million tons in 2016/17 season.
The second largest rice exporter country after India is Thailand. Thailand, which is realized 9,7 million tons rice export in 2014/15 season is estimated to decrease 9,5 million tons in 2015/16 season. In 2016/17, the country is predicted to increase 9,7 million tons again .
According to the data of 2015/16 season; the third largest rice exporter country of the world is Vietnam. Vietnam which is realized 6,6 million tons corn export in 2014/15 season, decrease export amount to 5,1 million tons in 2015/16 season. The country’s export activities are predicted to be 5,8 million tons in 2016/17 season.
According to the data of 2015/16, Pakistan comes fourth after Vietnam in world corn export with 4,2 million tons. USA with 3,5 million tons, Burma with 1 million tons and Uruguay with 920 thousand tons follow Pakistan.
The largest share in rice import belongs to China. According to the data of USDA, import amount of Japan alone is 5,1 million tons in 2014/15. It is estimated that China will be realized 4,5 million tons rice import in 2015/16 season. The predicted import amount of China for 2016/17 season is 5 million tons. Second rice importer is Nigeria. Nigeria which is realized 2 million tons rice import in 2014/15 season, is expected to import 2 million tons rice in 2015/16 season. Predicted import amount of Nigeria for 2016/17 season is 1,9 million tons.
EU countries with 1,8 million tons; Saudi Arabia with 1,5 million tons, Coted’Ivoire with 1,3 million tons, Indonesia and Iran with 1,1 million tons follows China and Nigeria in rice import.
According to the data of USDA; the predicted rice amount in the world for 2016/17 is nearly 40,7 million tons. This is about 1 million tons more than the amount in 2015/16 season.
RICE PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
When the data of Turkish statistical institution (TUIK) viewed, it can be said that paddy cultivation area is realized 994 thousand hectare in 2011. This is risen 1 million hectare between 2012 and 2013. Cultivation area is risen 1 million 108 thousand hectare is realized 1 million 158 thousand in 2015.
When the amount of paddy production viewed, production that is 900 thousand tons in 2011 is decreased 880 thousand tons in 2012. The rice production of Turkey is risen 900 thousand tons in 2013. It is decreased again in 2014 and is realized rice production of 830 thousand tons. Production of rice in 2015 is 920 thousand tons.
A yield which was 905 kilogram per decare in 2011 dropped to 814 kilogram in 2013 and 794 kilogram in 2015. Rice between 250 and 550 thousand tons is imported every year because this amount is not enough for domestic consumption.