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WORLD GRAIN AND PULSES MARKET

18 May 201720 min reading

International Grain Council (IGC) announced its latest report for global grain market on 27 April. According to this report, total grain production amount in the world is increasing. World total grain production which is realized 2.008 million tons in 2015/16 season, is forecasted to rise 2.111 million tons. In 2017/18 project, IGC estimates that world total grain production decrease 2.054 million tons.

 BAKLİYAT

Grains which can be found and consumed nearly everywhere on earth are used in making main foods like bread and flour that are highly important for human nutrition. Grain products which are wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, rye and sorghum in general are also the most consumed products at the same time. International Grain Council (IGC) announced its latest report for global grain market on 27 April. According to this report, total grain production amount in the world is increasing. World total grain production which is realized 2.008 million tons in 2015/16 season, is forecasted to rise 2.111 million tons. In 2017/18 project, IGC estimates that world total grain production decrease 2.054 million tons.

According to report, world total grain consumption is expected to increase as parallel to production. world total grain consumption which is 1.984 million tons in 2015/16 season, is forecasted to rise 2.075 million tons in 2016/17 season. In 2017/18 projection, total consumption is expected to realize 2.079 million tons more than production.

Almost 322-346 million tons of world total grain production takes part in international trade. According to the report of IGC, total grain trade which is 346 million tons in 2015/16 season, is expected to decrease 345 million tons in 2016/17 season. In 2017/18 projection, IGC forecasts grain trade to decrease 342 million tons.

According to world grain stocks, total grain stock which is 480 million tons in 2015/16 season, is expected to increase 516 million tons in 2016/17 season. In 2017/18 projection, it is thought to decrease 491 million tons.

WORLD WHEAT PRODUCTION AND MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES International Grain Council IGC announced its latest report for global grain market on 27 April. According to the report of IGC, global wheat production is increasing. As to the report, global wheat production which was 736 million tons in 2015/16 season is forecasted to rise 753 million tons in 2016/17 season. In 2017/18 project, IGC estimates to decrease 736 million tons.

Data of United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agriculture Service (USDA FAS) in April is nearly the same with the data of IGC. According to the data of USDA, wheat production amount which was 728 million tons in 2014/15 season increased at 735 million tons in 2015/16 season. USDA also forecasts 751 million tons for 2016/17 season.

According to data of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), wheat production is realized 672 million tons in 2012. Wheat production which is risen 710 million tons in 2013 with record rising, is realized 729 million tons in 2014.

According to USDA data, European Union countries take the lead in world wheat production for 2015/16 season with 160 million tons. It is assumed that the wheat production of European Union countries will drop in 2016/17 season and be realized as 144,6 million tons. The biggest producer as a single country is China as usual. China has produced 130 million tons of wheat in 2015/16 season and it is predicted that this amount will be 128,8 million tons for 2016/17 season. India follows China with 86,5 million tons in 2015/16 season.

According to USDA data, the highest rate of wheat consumption, as in its production, belongs to European Union countries. European countries are also expected to be the top again with consumption amount of nearly 129 million tons in 2016/17 season. However, on a single country basis, China is the leader in consumption with 112 million tons. In the same season, India with 88,5 million tons, Russia with 37 million tons, USA with 32 million tons and Pakistan with 24,4 million tons, Egypt with 19,2 million tons and Iran with 18 million tons follows China.

WORLD WHEAT TRADE According to the report of IGC, global wheat trade which was 153 million tons in 2014/15 season, was recorded as 165 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is expected to realize 171 million tons in 2016/17 season. However, despite the expectations for the growth of consumption, a growth in trade is not expected. Even as to IGC, global wheat trade will decrease 1 million tons (165 million tons).

USDA data shows that global wheat trade which was 172 million tons in 2015/16 season indicates to increase 173,5 million tons in 2016/17 season. Forecasting an increase of 1 million tons in current season, the data of USDA is 6-7 million tons more than the data of IGC. The reason why the data of USDA is higher is that flour trade is also included in this data.

According to USDA data, 34,6 million tons of total world wheat and flour trade which was 172 million tons in 2015/16 season was done by European Union countries. Russia has the second place with 25,5 million tons. Other countries are Canada with 22 million tons. When the forecast of USDA for 2016/17 season is considered, Russia will rank first with 28,5 million tons, USA will rank second with 27,5 million tons and EU will rank third with 25,5 million tons

Egypt has long been in the first place for world wheat import. According to the data of USDA, Egypt which has imported 11,3 million tons in 2014/15 seasons; this amount has reached at 11,9 million tons in 2015/16 season. Indonesia which comes right after Egypt imported 7,4 million tons of wheat while it imported 10,1 million tons of wheat with an increase of 2,5 million tons in 2015/16 season. Indonesia is followed by Algeria with 8,1 million tons, EU countries with 6,9 million tons, Brazil with 5,9 million tons and Japan with 5,7 million tons. It is forecasted that in 2016/17 season, wheat import of Indonesia will decrease 1 million tons and other countries will import at nearly the same level in 2015/16 season.

WORLD CORN PRODUCTION AND LEADING PRODUCER COUNTRIES Corn has come second after wheat in terms of production in the world before. But, but it has been ranking first for the last 10 years. According to the report published by US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in April, global corn production which reached 1 billion tons in 2014/15 with record rising is expected to fall down to 962 million tons in 2015/16. But, the forecasted production amount of world corn is 1,04 billion tons in 2016/17 season.

According to the report published by International Grain Council (ICG) on 27 April 2016, global corn production was 974 million tons in 2015/16, is estimated to reach 1,05 billion tons in 2016/17 season. The data of USDA is very similar to the figures published by ICG.

According to the data of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 875,4 million tons of corn was produced in 2012. In 2013, the production increased by a record rate, reaching 1,17 billion tons, and 2014, it continued increasing and peaked to 1,38 billion tons.

According to the report published by US Department of Agriculture (USDA), global corn consumption was 960,6 million tons in 2015/16, is expected to reach 1,03 billion tons in 2016/17.

There is a slight difference in the estimates of USDA with regard to global corn consumption. According to the reports of ICG, global corn consumption which was 971 million tons in 2015/16, is expected to reach 1,04 in 2016/17. Unfortunately the most recent data of FAO is from 2014, and does not cover the present year.

The highest corn production in the world by years belongs to USA. According to the data of USDA; USA provides 361 million tons of world corn production which was 1 billion tons in 2014/15 season. Production amount of USA was decreased 345,5 million tons by declining 16 million tons in 2015/16 season. USA’s production amount is estimated to be 384,7 million tons in 2016/17 season. China comes second after USA in terms of corn production. Corn production of China which was 215,6 million tons in 2014/15 season is estimated to rise 224,6 million tons in 2015/16 season. China’s production amount of corn is estimated to decrease 219,5 million tons by 5 million tons declining in 2016/17 season. Brazil follows them with 67 million tons of production.

WORLD CORN CONSUMPTION AND MAJOR CONSUMER COUNTRIES Currently, USA is the biggest consumer of corn. In USA, consumption was 301,7 million tons in 2014/15 season. But with 3 million tons decrease, corn consumption of USA was decreased 298,8 million tons. The estimated consumption amount of USA for 2016/17 season is reached 314,8 million tons.

The largest consumption amount after USA belongs to China. The consumption amount of China has reached 202 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is risen 217,5 million tons by rising 15 million tons in 2015/16. The estimated consumption amount of China is nearly 231 million tons in 2016/17 season.

EU countries come after USA and China in corn consumption. The consumption amount of EU countries for 2014/15 season is 77,8 million tons. Declining 73,2 million tons in 2015/16 season, EU countries has 73 million tons estimated consumption amount for 2016/17 season.

WORLD CORN TRADE

Almost 130-145 million tons of world corn production takes part in international trade. According to the data of USDA; the largest share in corn trade for 2014/15 season belongs to USA with 46,8 million tons. USA corn export reached 51 million tons by rising 5 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is istimated that the country’s export amount would increase 56,5 million tons in 2016/17 season.

The second largest corn exporter country after USA is Brazil. Brazil, which is realized 22 million tons corn export in 2014/15 season, reached 35 million tons with record increasing in 2015/16 season. In 2016/17, the country is estimated to decrease 21 million tons.

According to the data of 2015/16 season; the third largest corn exporter country of the world is Argentina. Argentina which is realized 18 million tons corn export in 2014/15 season, increase export amount to 21,6 million tons in 2015/16 season. The country’s export activities are estimated to increase to 26 million tons in 2016/17 season.

The largest share in corn import belongs to Japan. According to the data of USDA, import amount of Japan alone is 14,6 million tons in 2014/15. Japon is realized 15 million tons corn import in 2015/16 season. The estimated import amount of Japan for 2016/17 season is 15 million tons. Second corn importer is Mexico. Mexico which is realized 11 million tons corn import in 2014/15 season, is increased its import amount to 14 million tons in 2015/16 season. Estimated import amount of Mexico for 2016/17 season is remained same.

WORLD RICE PRODUCTION AND LEADING PRODUCER COUNTRIES Rice is the world’s third most important cereal crop following wheat and corn, based on production volume. Global rice production is realized 473 million tons in 2015/16. Almost 40 million tons of world rice production takes part in international trade.

According to the report published by US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in April, global rice production is realized 472 million tons in 2015/16, will increase 480 million tons in 2016/17.

According to the report published by International Grain Council (ICG) on 27 April 2017, global rice production was 473 million tons in 2015/16, is forecasted 483 million tons in 2016/17 season. The data of USDA is very similar to the figures published by ICG. In 2017/18 projection, world rice production is expected to realize 487 million tons.

According to the data of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in December, 497,7 million tons of rice was produced in 2014/15 season. This amount is estimated to decrease 491,3 in 2015/16 season. FAO forecasts 496,7 million tons for 2016/17 season.

There is a slight difference in the estimates of USDA with regard to global rice consumption. According to the reports of ICG, global rice consumption which was 475 million tons in 2015/16, is forecasted to reach 482 million tons in 2016/17 season. According to the reports of FAO in December 2016, utilization of rice amount is 397,3 million tons in 2015/16 season for food, feed and other uses. FAO predicted to realize 402,5 million tons utilization of rice amount for 2016/17 season.

The highest rice production in the world by years belongs to China. According to the data of USDA; China provides 144,5 million tons of world rice production which was 478,5 million tons in 2014/15 season. Production amount of China is estimated to increase 145,7 million tons in 2015/16 season. China’s production amount is predicted to be 144,8 million tons in 2016/17 season. India comes second after China in terms of rice production. Rice production of India which was 105 million tons in 2014/15 season is estimated to decrease to 104 million tons in season 2015/16. India’s production amount of rice is predicted to increase 106,5 million tons by 2 million tons rising in 2016/17 season. Indonesia follows them with 36 million tons of production.

WORLD RICE CONSUMPTION AND MAJOR CONSUMER COUNTRIES Currently, China is the biggest consumer of rice as in the production of rice. In China, consumption was 144,5 million tons in 2014/15 season. But with 500 thousand tons decrease, rice consumption of China was decreased 144 million tons in 2015/16 season. The consumption amount of China for 2016/17 season is predicted to remain same as 2015/16 season.

The largest consumption amount after China belongs to India. The consumption amount of India is 98 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is estimated to decrease 93,5 million tons by declining 5 million tons. The predicted consumption amount of India is 97 million tons in 2016/17 season.

Indonesia come after China and India in rice consumption. The consumption amount of Indonesia for 2014/15 season is 38,3 million tons. The consumption amount of Indonesia for 2015/16 is estimated to decrease 37,8 million tons. Indonesia has 37,3 million tons predicted consumption amount for 2016/17 season.

WORLD RICE TRADE Almost 40 million tons of world rice production takes part in international trade. According to the data of USDA; the largest share in rice trade for 2014/15 season belongs to India with 11 million tons. India rice export is 10 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is predicted to remain same as 10 million tons in 2016/17 season.

The second largest rice exporter country after India is Thailand. Thailand, which is realized 9,7 million tons rice export in 2014/15 season is estimated to increase 9,8 million tons in 2015/16 season. In 2016/17, the country is predicted to increase 10 million tons again .

According to the data of 2015/16 season; the third largest rice exporter country of the world is Vietnam. Vietnam which is realized 6,6 million tons rice export in 2014/15 season, decrease export amount to 5,1 million tons in 2015/16 season. The country’s export activities are predicted to be 5,6 million tons in 2016/17 season.

The largest share in rice import belongs to China. According to the data of USDA, import amount of Japan alone is 5,1 million tons in 2014/15. It is estimated that China will be realized 4,6 million tons rice import in 2015/16 season. The predicted import amount of China for 2016/17 season is 5 million tons. Second rice importer is Nigeria. Nigeria which is realized 2 million tons rice import in 2014/15 season, is expected to import 2 million tons rice in 2015/16 season. Predicted import amount of Nigeria for 2016/17 season is 1,8 million tons. EU countries ranks third with 1,8 million tons in rice import.

WORLD PULSES MARKET The nutritional value of pulses in terms of nutrition and body health has been recently emphasized frequently by nutritionist in health and food area in many countries around the world. As you know, 68th United Nations General Assembly has declared “2016 the International Year of Pulses” and panels, conferences and symposiums are organized to increase pulse consumption worldwide. In the same way, agricultural experts point out the importance of pulses in terms of soil health. Despite all of these, global pulses production is not sufficient when compared to demand for pulses. Currently, the world is seeking to increase pulses production.

Also, recent months, The Global Pulse Confederation (GPC) announces that the third Wednesday of January will be celebrated every year as ‘Pulse Day’ all over the world.

WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION AND MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES As everybody knows, the data for agricultural production, that everybody can reach easily, is updated rapidly. As well as even the updated data of current season, forecasts for the following season are also announced. However, there is no such data for pulses production yet. Today, The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announce the latest data and the date is 2014.

According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data, the global pulses production which was approximately 61 million tons in 2005, 2006 and 2007 reached 62,7 million tons in 2008, 64,2 million tons in 2009 and 70,6 million tons in 2010. Decreasing to 69,2 million tons in 2011, production amount increased again to 75,1 million tons in 2012. Increase trend in pulses production continued in the following years; and production increased to 77,2 million tons in 2013 and 77,6 million tons in 2014.

When we look at the production of pulses in 2014 on country basis, it is seen that India has the first position in world production. India produced 16,7 million tons of pulses in 2012 and has raised this amount 18,3 million tons in 2013. It continued to increase in 2014 and reached 19,9 million tons. India is immediately followed by Canada, which increased its annual average pulses production of 5 million tons to 6.1 million tons in 2013. However the production amount decreased again to 5,8 million tons in 2014. The world’s third largest producer of pulses is Myanmar, which realized pulses production with an amount of about 5,6 and 5,9 million tons in 2013 and 2014.

In general, pulses are grown all over the world. When observed in a basis of continents, it is evident that the highest pulses production in 2014 was in the continent of Asia with 35,4 million tons. Asia is followed immediately by Africa with 17 million tons. The continent of America has the third place with 15.5 tons of production in 2014. 7 million tons were produced in Europe, whereas it is around 2,2 million tons in Oceania.

PRODUCT BASED WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION Countries have focused on one or two items of pulse production. In general terms, dry beans are the most produced pulses all over the world. The world production of dry beans was approximately 24 million tons in 2010 and decreased by an amount to about 23 million tons in 2013. In 2014, the production increased again and reached 26,5 million tons which is the highest amount of the last 6 years. The Asian continent is the first in world dry bean production. In 2014, 11.6 million tons of dry bean production was carried out in the Asian continent, it is followed by the Americas in the same year by 7,9 million tons and Africa by 6,1 million tons.

Chickpeas have the second place after dry beans for pulses production in the world. In 2010, the world chickpea production was 10,9 million tons and it was around 11 million tons in 2010-2011 and 2012. According to FAO data, the world chickpea production reached 13.3 million tons in 2013 and 13,7 million tons in 2014. Asia is dominant in the world chickpea production as well as seen in dry beans. It is even possible to say that, almost the entire chickpea production is realized in the Asian continent. That’s because, according to data from 2014, 11,7 million tons of a total of 13,7 million tons of world chickpea production was carried out in Asia. Asia is followed by Africa with 757 thousand tons of production, Oceania with production of 629 thousand tons, America with 479 thousand tons of production and Europe with 164 thousand tons of production.

Following dry beans and chickpeas, the third most produced pulses in the world are dry peas. In 2010, 2011 and 2012 world production of dry peas was around 10,3-10,6 million tons, this reached to 11,2 million tons in 2013 and realized 11.1 million tons in 2014.

According to the 2014 data, the largest share of dry pea production in the world was owned by American continent with 4.4 million tons. In the same year, America is followed by Europe with 3,3 million tons, Asia with 2.3 million tons and Africa with 662 thousand tons.

WORLD PULSES TRADE Approximately 84 percent of the pulses produced in the world is to meet the domestic demand of the countries. The remaining portion of 16 percent is included in the world trade. According to the data of FAO about global pulses trade, Canada is a leading country in world pulses export with its export amount of 5 million tons. After Canada, Australia comes with 1,4 million tons, Myanmar with 1,3 million tons, USA with 1,1 million tons and China with 841 thousand tons.

India ranks first in pulses import. According to 2013 data, 28,4 percent, i.e. 3,8 million, of global pulses import was of India. China with 1,1 million tons, Bangladesh with 816 thousand tons, Pakistan and Egypt with 433 thousand tons, United Arab Emirates with 391 thousand tons and Brazil with 373 thousand tons follow India.

Regarding amounts, the most exported pulses product is dry pea. In 2013, the worldwide dry peas export was 4.6 million tons. The monetary value of this export amount is $ 2.1 million. Following dry peas, the most exported product is dry beans. While the export of dry beans is less than dry peas export regarding amount, its monetary value is higher. The amount of dry beans exported in 2013 was 4 million tons, while its monetary value was $ 3,8 million. Dry beans are followed by lentils with 2.6 million tons and chickpeas with 1.6 million tons. Lentil and chickpea are listed as 3rd and 4th in global export.

Americas reach the highest value regarding to export of lentils and dry peas. In 2013, the dry peas export in the Americas was 3.3 million tons. This amount corresponds to 71.6 percent of world dry pea exports. Dry peas are immediately followed by lentil among the products exported by the American continent. In 2013, Americas have exported 2 million tons of lentils, 1 million tons of dry beans and 287 thousand tons of chickpeas.

Americas are followed by Asia in world exports of pulses. The dominant exported pulses products in Asian continent are dry beans. In 2013, 2,2 million tons of dry beans were exported in Asia, followed by 477 thousand tons of chickpeas, 286 thousand tons of lentils and 65 thousand tons of dry peas. In 2013, the third largest export region is Oceania. In Oceania, the main exported pulses are chickpeas (550 thousand tons). It is indicated that, the export of chickpeas is followed by lentils (316 thousand tons), dry peas (189 thousand tons) and dry beans (63 thousand tons).

The fourth largest export region is Europe. In 2013, 873 thousand tons of dry peas were exported in Europe. Dry peas are followed by chickpeas with 200 thousand tons, dry beans with 124 thousand tons and lentils with 35 thousand tons. In the African continent, a total of 850 thousand tons of pulses were exported in 2013. The main exported pulses are dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils respectively.

Asian continent is the first in importing pulses. Accordingly, the Asian continent has imported 3.1 million tons of dry peas, 1.5 million tons of dry beans, 1.7 million tons of lentils and 1,1 million tons of chickpeas in 2013. Asian continent is followed by Europe. In 2013, 613 thousand tons of dry peas and 587 thousand tons of dry bean were imported by the European continent. In Americas, the most imported product is dry beans. In 2013, 937 thousand tons of dry beans were imported in the continent. Dry beans are the most imported products in Africa and Oceania. In 2013, the dry bean import in Africa was 351 thousand tons, whereas it was 15 thousand tons in Oceania.

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