Barley production in the world was 144,2 million tons in 2013/14 season and this amount has decreased to 141,8 million tons in 2014/15 season. The greatest share of world barley consumption, as in its production, belongs to European Union countries. European Union has consumed around 51-53 million tons of barley between 2012/13 and 2015/16 seasons. The amount or barley subject to world trade within the last three seasons was between 22 and 29,2 million tons.
Barley was consumed as an important food source by millions of people since the Neolithic period, but today it is mostly used as animal fodder and for beer production. In 1980s, its nutritive value was understood in Europe and America, so it had appeared in food sector again. But, the importance of barley for food did not change for some cultures in Asia and North Africa since the first ages. Also, in Polar Regions and in mountainous areas where wheat cannot be cultivated, barley is produced and used as a food product. Today, 65 percent of worldwide barley production is used as animal fodder, 33 percent for malt beer, whiskey and biodiesel production and 2 percent is used in food industry. In Turkey, 90 percent of the consumption is as fodder, while the remaining part is used in beer and food industry. The amount used in food industry is very low, as the amount used for beer industry gradually increases.
BARLEY PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD AND MAJOR PRODUCERS
According to the data of United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agriculture Service (USDA FAS) that was published in September, barley production that was 128,7 million tons in 2012/2013 in the world, has reached 144,2 million tons in 2013/14 season with record rise. Barley production that is dropped 141,8 million tons in 2014/15 season, has risen 148,7 million tons by increasing again. On the report, USDA has made a prediction of 143,7 million tons of barley production for 2016/17 season.
According to USDA data, European Union countries take the lead in world barley production for 2015/16 season with 61,5 million tons. It is assumed that the barley production of European Union countries will drop in 2016/17 season and be realized as 60 million tons. The biggest producer as a single country is Russia. Russia has produced 17 million tons of barley in 2015/16 season and it is predicted that this amount will be 18 million tons for 2016/17 season. Ukraine follows Russia with 8,7 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is assumed that the barley production will rise in Ukraine, on the contrary in European Union and in Russia, for 2016/17 season (9,7 million tons). Australia has the 4th place, following Ukraine. Australia has produced 8,5 million tons of barley in 2015/16 season, and it is assumed that this amount will increase to 9,9 million tons in 2016/17 season, thereby the country will have the second place as a single country in world barley production. Canada (8,2 million tons) and Turkey (7,4 million tons) follow these countries. USA has the eighth place in world barley production with 4,6 million tons of production. But, the USDA data on the barley production in Turkey do not match with the data provided by Turkish Statistical Institute. There is a difference between the TUIK and USDA data.
WORLD BARLEY CONSUMPTION AND MAJOR CONSUMER COUNTRIES
When we consider the barley consumption worldwide, we see that world consumption was always a little bit more than the production, except for 2013/14 and 2015/16 seasons. According to USDA data, the global barley consumption was 147,5 million tons in 2015/16 season. But it is predicted that the total consumption will realized 146,7 million tons with a little decrease in 2016/17 season.
According to USDA data, the highest rate of barley consumption, as in its production, belongs to European Union countries. European Union has consumed 51-53 tons of barley between 2012/13 and 2015/16 seasons. Russia continues to take the lead as single country in world barley consumption. Russia’s barley consumption rate for 2015/16 season is 13,6 million tons. In the same season, Saudi Arabia (10,2 million tons), China (8,2 million tons), Canada (6,95 million tons) and Turkey (6,90 million tons) are continued Russia. It is assumed that barley consumption of EU, Russia and Saudi Arabia will increase and barley consumption of China will decrease in 2016/17 season; as the greatest decrease in consumption will be for Turkey with 1,4 million tons.
BARLEY TRADE IN WORLD
According to USDA data, world barley trade was 22,1 million tons in 2012/13 season, and it reached to 23,8 million tons in 2013/14, then 30 million tons in 2014/15 and finally it is decreased to 28,7 million tons in 2015/16 season. The assumption of USDA for 2016/17 season is 27,8 million tons.
According to USDA data, 10,1 million tons of total world barley trade (29,2 million tons) in 2015/16 season was done by European Union countries. Australia has the second place with 5,2 million tons. Ukraine has followed with 4,6 million tons after Australia. In the same season, Russia (3,7 million tons), Argentina (2,8 million tons) and Canada (1,1 million tons) are followed. It is assumed that the export amounts of EU, Argentina and Kazakistan will drop as the amounts of Australia, Ukraine and Russia will increase for 2016/17 season.
Saudi Arabia has long been in the first place for world barley import. China has imported between 2,1-4,8 million tons of barley between 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons; and this amount has increased to 9,8 million tons in 2014/15 season, placing the country on the first place in world barley import. But, then China has decrease second place with 3,6 million tons in 2015/16 season. Saudi Arabia that has decreased in 2014/15 season, has increase amount of import by 9 million tons. This amount has risen to 10,7 million tons in 2015/16 season. It is placed on the first place again. Saudi Arabia is followed by Iran (1,9 million tons), Japan (1,1 million tons), Libya (1 million tons) and Algeria (900 thousand tons). It is assumed that Saudi Arabia, China, Iran's barley import will decrease a little in 2016/17 season. But, it will remain at the first place in world barley import. The assumptions for other countries are almost at the same level with 2015/16 season.
BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
Barley can be produced almost in all regions of Turkey and it has the second place after wheat in terms of cultivated area and production. Barley is produced in all regions of Turkey; but the Central Anatolian region (Konya, Eskisehir, Ankara and Kirsehir) and Southeastern Anatolia (Sanliurfa, Diyarbakir and Mardin) are the two important regions for barley production.
There is a fluctuation in the cultivated area, production and productivity of barley in Turkey. Highest rate of production was in 2006 between the years 2004-2014. The highest cultivated area between the same years was reached in 2005 and the highest productivity rate was in 2013.
According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) data, Turkey has cultivated barley in 36 million decare of area in 2004, with 9 million tons of production. The cultivated area has reached to its highest level for the last 10 years in 2005 by 36,5 million decares, and the production has risen to 9,5 million tons. In 2006 the production has increased even more. But, in the following years, both the production and the cultivated area have decreased. Turkey had 27,2 million decares of barley cultivation in 2013 with 7,9 million tons of production. In 2015, it can be seen that Turkey has produced 8 million tons of barley on 27,8 million decares of cultivated land. The productivity in the same year is 287 kg per decare.
The reason of low rate of productivity of barley in Turkey is the dry production conditions. The productivity rate rises and drops depending on climate. The productivity rate in recent years has increased to almost 250 kg. per decare; but the cultivated area has dropped, causing lower production rates.
Turkey consumes almost all of its barley production. In Turkey, 90 percent of the consumption is as fodder, while the remaining part is used in beer and food industry. The amount used in food industry is very low, as the amount used for beer industry gradually increases.
BARLEY TRADE IN TURKEY
According to the data of TUIK, highest amount of barley export in Turkey between the years 2005-2015 was in 2010 with 500 thousand tons. The value of this export is 74,8 million dollars. There are fluctuations in barley tarde of Turkey. Turkey has exported only 3.221 tons of barley in 2011, and this amount has increased to 100 thousand tons in 2012, and decreased to 110 tons in 2013. The amount of exported barley in 2015 is 134 tons. The value of this amount is 55 thousand dollars.
The barley import of Turkey was 256,811 tons in 2013 and this amount has increased to 675,993 tons in the following season. Between 2005 and 2012, the import amount was above 100 thousand tons only in 2008 (253 thousand tons), but remained below 100 thousand tons in the rest. But, import amount is risen by 2013 and reached 675 thousand tons with a new record in 2014. Amount is decreased 199,5 thousand tons in 2015.When we examine the barley import of Turkey on a value-based level, it is seen that the highest import amount was reached in 2014 by 164 million dollars.