“According to the report of the International Grains Council published on the 1st of April, 2015, the rice production in the world continues to increase. The rice production in the world reached to 472 million tons in 2012/13 season and to 478 million tons in 2013/14 season. IGS estimates the rice production in 2014/15 season to be 479 million tons. IGC’s February and April estimates for 2015/16 season indicate 5 and 6 million tons of decrease, respectively. And the estimate regarding 2016/17 season is 485 million tons.”
Being the third most common grain product being produced after wheat and corn, rice is consumed especially in Asia as the staple food. Rice is mainly produced for the nutrition of people and forms one out of five of foods being consumed by people as the staple food. Rice is thought to have spread the world from China, which has been started to be consumed around 2500 B.C. Rice is also presumed to have passed to countries such as Sri Lanka and India through China. And the West was introduced to rice around 300 A.D. The paddy of the cultivated plant, which is suspected to have arrived in the Americas by the end of the 17th century, is thought to have reached Turkey before 500 years.
Rice harbours less proteins in its content compared to other grains. However, its being reach in terms of amino acids has made it one of the products consumed by people the most after wheat. Regions where the paddy is produced most fertilely in terms of the growing conditions are the tropical and temperate zones. The agriculture areas in the world is known to be approximately 1,5 billion hectares and grains cover 700 million hectares of these areas. Approximately 22 per cent of these areas which are used for grain production is spared for paddy production. Countries having the highest proportions in terms of the paddy lands across the world are China, India and Indonesia.
RICE PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD AND PRODUCER COUNTRIES
According to 1 April 2015 dated report of the International Grains Council (IGC), rice production in the world continues to increase. According to IGC Report, the rice production in the world reached to 472 million tons in 2012/13 season and to 478 million tons in 2013/14 season. IGS estimates the production in 2014/15 season to be 479 million tons. IGC’s February and April estimates for 2015/16 season indicate 5 and 6 million tons of decrease, respectively. And the estimate regarding 2016/17 season is 485 million tons.
Looking at the top 15 list of USDA, a body declaring data and information regarding the rice production in the world, in 2014/15 season. Having produced 142,5 million tons of rice in 2013/14 season, China increased its production in 2014/15 season to 144,5 tons. USDA’s 2015/16 estimate indicates 1,5 million tons of increase in China’s rice production. In the data declared regarding India, it is possible to observe decreases in the production. Having produced 106,6 million tons of rice in 2013/14 season according to USDA data, India will produce 105,4 million tons of rice in 2014/15 season, which is indicative of 1 million tons of decrease. The estimate regarding the rice production of India in 2015/16 season is 103 million tons. Based on the data from 2014/15 season; Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, Brazil, Japan and the USA follow China and India with the production capacities of 35,5 million tons, 34,5 million tons, 28,1 million tons, 18,7 million tons, 12,6 million tons, 11,9 million tons, 8,4 million tons, 7,8 million tons and 7,1 million tons, respectively.
China and India keep preserving their number one position in rice production in the world as well as the consumption. According to USDA data; China, having produced 148 million tons of rice in 2014/15 season, is estimated to produce 150,3 million tons of rice in 2015/16 and India, having produced 98,7 million tons of rice in the same period, is estimated to produce 98,2 million tons of rice. The world ranking in the rice consumption is almost the same. According to USDA data; China and India are followed by Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Japan and Brazil with the consumption values of 38,3 million tons, 35,1 million tons, 22 million tons, 13,2 million tons, 10,9 million tons, 8,6 million tons and 7,9 million tons of rice, respectively. Production and consumption data suggests that the countries in question utilize a significant amount of their rice production for their domestic consumption.
WORLD RICE TRADE
Approximately 41-42 million tons of the rice production in the world is subject to international trade. The biggest share in the rice exportation in the world belongs to Asian countries in parallel with the production. The USA and South American countries follow the Asian countries. According to USDA data, the biggest share in the rice exportation in the world in 2014/15 season belongs to India. India exported 10,2 million tons of rice in 2011/12 season and increased this amount to 10,4 million tons in 2012/13 season and to 11,5 million tons in 2013/14 season. India is expected to export 9 million tons of rice in 2015/16 season.
India is followed by Thailand in 2014/15 season with the rice exportation of 9,7 million tons. According to USDA data; Thailand exported 6,9 and 6,7 million tons of rice in 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons and increased this amount to 10,9 million tons in 2013/14 season. Thailand is expected to increase its exports and reach up to 10 million tons of exportation in 2015/16 season.
Vietnam is ranked after India and Thailand in the list of top 10 rice exporters. Having exported 7,7 million tons of rice in 2011/12 season, Vietnam decreased this amount down to 6,7 million tons in 2012/13 season and to 6,3 million tons in 2013/14 season. Vietnam accomplished 6,6 million tons of rice export in 2014/15 season by getting on the rise again. The county is estimated to export 7 tons of rice exports in 2015/16 season. According to 2014/12 season data; Thailand, India and Vietnam are followed by Pakistan, the USA, Myanmar and Cambodia in the world rice exportation market with the amounts of 4 million tons, 3,4 million tons, 1,7 million tons and 1,1 million tons, respectively.
The biggest share in the rice importation belongs to China. Being in the first position in the world in the rice production, China is not able to meet the domestic consumption with its production and consequently imports rice. China imported around 3 and 4,5 million tons of rice in 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons and this amount increased to 5,1 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is estimated that the rice importation of China increased to 5 million tons in 2015/16 season.
Following China, Nigeria increased its rice importation, which equals to 3,4, 2,4 and 3,2 million tons in 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons, to 3 million tons in 2014/15 season. Nigeria is estimated to have imported 2,5 million tons of rice in 2015/16 season.
Philippines which is in the third position after China and Nigeria imported 1,5 million tons of rice in 2011/12 season, 1 million tons in 2012/13 season and 1,8 million tons of rice in 2013/14 season. This amount increased to 2 million tons by the end of 2014/15 season. Rice importation of Philippines by the end of 2015/16 season is estimated to have reached to 2 million tons.
According to 2014/15 season data; China, Nigeria and Philippines are followed by the EU countries with 1,7 million tons, Saudi Arabia with 1,4 million tons, Iran with 1,3 million tons, Indonesia and Ivory Coast with 1,1 million tons and Malaysia and Iraq with 1 million tons of rice importation.
RICE PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
Rice production in Turkey has increased due to the gain of paddy cultivation areas. Analysing the data from Turkish Statistical Institute (TUİK); it is observed that the land utilized for paddy production in 2010 was approximately 99 thousand hectares while it reached above 110 thousand hectares in 2012 and 2013. The magnitude of the cultivations areas, which remained 110 thousand hectares in 2014/15 season, are observed to have reached to 115 thousand hectares in 2015. While the productivity gained from the unit area increased between the years of 2009 and 2011; it decreased between the years of 2012 and 2014. The productivity gained from the unit area in 2015 was 795 kg/decare.
Looking at the paddy production; the production which was 860 thousand tons in 2010 increased to 900 thousand tons in 2011. The paddy production of Turkey decreased to 880 thousand tons in 2012 and increased to 900 thousand tons in 2013 again. It then decreased to 830 thousand tons in 2014. The paddy production recorded in 2015 is 920 thousand tons.
RICE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF TURKEY
Even though the rice production of Turkey increases every year, it has not reached to the level to meet the consumption yet. This is why Turkey imports rice in order to meet the domestic consumption. According to the data of Turkish Statistical Institute; the rice importation of Turkey, which was 535 thousand tons in 2010, decreased to 349 thousand tons in 2011 and to 263 thousand tons in 2012. Having reached to 283 thousand tons with a slight increase in 2013, the rice importation reached to 493 thousand tons in 2014, which is a significant increase. It decreased down to 312 thousand tons in 2015. While the equivalent of the rice importation in terms of its value was 150 million dollars in 2013; 277 million dollars were spent on the rice importation in 2014. The amount spent on the importation in 2015 was 166 million dollars.
It is seen that the exportation amount is quite limited compared to the importation in Turkey. Turkey exports rice especially to Syria, and Iraq, Jordan and Sudan with the mount not exceeding 100 thousand tons. Rice exportation of Turkey which was 51 thousand tons in 2010 increased up to 98 thousand tons in 2012; however, started to decrease again in the following years. The value of the 98-million-ton exportation of Turkey in 2012 is 74 million dollars.