Worldwide production of rye and oats are lower than those of other cereal species. An average annual production of 14-15 million tons of rye in the world, and more than half of which is due to the production of 22-23 million tons of oats are provided by EU. According to USDA data; 13.7 million tons in the 2012/13 season as the actual world rye production will take place at levels of 15 million tons in the 2014/15 season. In the 2013/14 season, oats production which was 23.5 million tons season is expected to be around 22.4 million tons in 2014/15.
Rye and oats, compared to other cereal species have much more limited production areas worldwide and therefore have much lower production volumes. However, these two grain growth conditions are suitable for most climates and soils. For example; rye which is considered to be the grain which is most resistant to cold, and can be grown even in very harsh winter areas such as Russia and Scandinavian countries; and even in the most unproductive land not suitable for wheat, barley, corn, rice farming, a kind of grain product better than other cereals. Ryes sowed in fall time and harvested in early summer next year, are usually very similar to barley in appearance which may reach 1-2 meters in height.
Oats is also a new culture plant compared to crops such as rye, wheat and barley. It is known that oats were grown as weed in Anatolia, then as feed grains grown for horses Oats, one of the most resistant plants resistant to cold temperature, ranks second after the rye among the products with minimum soil conditions. It can be grown even in poor soil with adequate moisture oats, they are referred to as one of the plants that can be used to convert marshy areas to agricultural land. Today oats produced more than rye as it likes cool, moist climates, it is cultivated best in northern part of the area including west European and Scandinavian countries and in Russia and North America.
The use areas of these two products mainly constitute the feed industry. However, as it is discovered that they carry some benefits in terms of health in recent years, the demand for these products is also increased. Making biscuits and breakfast from oats, while the increase the use of rye in bread making is a part of this demand. Consumption of these two products by grinding the mixture of them made with wheat flour also continues to increase.
WORLD RYE PRODUCTION
Half of the world production of rye which 14-15 million tons per year in average is provided by EU countries. According to USDA data; 17.5 million tons in 2009/10 as the actual world rye production, receded approximately 6 million tons in 2010/11, down to 11.4 million tons. 2011/12 season it increased again and reached 12.2 million tons, 13.7 million tons in the 2012/13 season, reached 15.8 million tons in the 2013/14 season. USDA, foresees that in the 2014/15 season 15 million tons of production will take place.
In world rye production, EU takes first place with 10.1 million tons in the 2013/14 season in production ranking as it was in previous years. Russia with 3.3 million tons, Belarus with 648 thousand tons, Ukraine with 638 thousand tons, Turkey with 350 thousand tons, Canada with 223 thousand tons and USD with 194 thousand tons follow EU countries respectively. In rye production predictions for the 2014/15 season; decline about 2 million tons for EU countries, the increase of approximately 600 thousand tons for Russia, about 150 thousand ton increase for Belarus, increase about 150 thousand tons for Ukraine are expected.
Rye regarded as bread flour and animal feed has a high nutritional value among cereals. Mixture of proteins found in wheat and rye flour (gluten) are indicated by swelling of the dough supple and soft. Therefore, while making bread from flour of other grains, wheat or rye flour are recommended to mix the dough.. In addition, in various regions of the world alcohol drinks such as whiskey, gin, vodka and the Russian beer called kvas are made from rye.
Regarding the consumption of rye; in 2009/10, it was around 17.1 million tons, in 2010/11 it decreased by about 5 million tons to 12.5 million tons. According to USDA data; world rye consumption which was at the level of 12.7 million tons, in the 2011/12 season, reached to 13.5 million tons and in the 2012/13 season and 15.2 million tons in the 2013/14 season. In the 2014/15 season again consumption is expected to remain at 15 million tons.
Rye consumption as in the production in the world ranks first in EU-27 countries. In the 2013/14 season, according to the USDA data, EU consumption is 9.7 million tons. This corresponds to 63.4 percent of the world rye consumption. Largest consumption on the basis of one country belongs to Russia as well as its production. In 2013/14 season 3.1 million tons of rye consumption was observed in Russia, in Belarus 650 thousand tons, in Ukraine 625 thousand tons, and in the United States 424 thousand tons.
As there is not a serious change in 2014/15 foresights in the EU's consumption, Russia's rye consumption is expected to reach 4 million tons with an increase by 1.9 million tons. With 1 million tons in the 2013/14 season, Belarus ranks in third place in rye consumption of the world and it is expected to decrease by 200 thousand tons.
WORLD RYE TRADE
As it can be observed from production and consumption data majority of rye is consumed in the country it is produced or a very small amount is exported to neighbouring countries. Therefore, subject to the amount of rye of world trade is only around 471 thousand tons in the 2013/14 season.
Approximately half of the rye amount subject to world trade in 2013/14 season, (201 thousand tons) were exported by EU countries. Russia taking the first place in the world rye export, in 2011/12 season exported 83 thousand tons and ranked in the third place in 2013/14 season. . Canada ranked the second in the last 3 seasons, but rye exports showed significantly a decline in export volume compared to the previous two seasons.
The largest share of imports of rye is in the United States. Rye imports carried out in the USA in 2013/14 season is 204 thousand tons.. EU countries follow USA in import with 94 thousand tons, with 37 thousand tons Japan, with 35 thousand tons Israel.
WORLD OATS PRODUCTION
An important part of production of oats that the annual average is around 22-23 million tons is offered by EU, Russia and Canada. According to USDA data; 23.5 million tons in 2009/10 realized as the actual world oat production, receded approximately 4 million tons in 2010/11, down to 19.6 million tons. Production reaching 22.3 million tons in the 2011/12 season, decreased to 21.1 million tons in the 2012/13 season, and in 2013/14 season started to increase again and reached to 23.5 million tons. The USDA foresight for 2014/15 production season is 22.4 million tons. EU countries are in the first place in world oats production with 8.3 million tons in 2013/14 season of production. EU countries are followed by Russia with 4.9 million tons, Canada with 3.9 million tons, Australia with 1.3 million tons, USA with 938 thousand tons, Chile with 610 thousand tons and China with 580 thousand tons. The predictions for the 2014/15 season, oats production is is expected to remain at almost the same level in all countries other than Canada with a decrease of 1 million tons.
Increase in the importance in human nutrition of the world in recent years, the utilization in the industry, and use in artificial grass forage, has led to increased planting of oats. As the oats grain is rich in protein, fat, vitamin, phosphorus, iron and calcium content, it increases its nutritional value. In this case, importance of oats in the human nutrition is increasing. Despite all these, a significant portion of the oats is still used as animal feed. The use in human nutrition is carried out through the use of oats as oats flour, oatmeal and bran in breakfast especially in developed countries. Oats grain is also used in biscuits, baby food, soups, sausages, sauces and baking.
Generally when we look at the consumption of oats in the world, a general use is among the 21-24 million tons . 2010/11 world consumption of around 21 million tons of oats increased to 22 million tons in the 2011/12 season and has declined to 21.8 million tons in the 2012/13 season. In 2013/14 season, an increase of about 2 million tons reaching to 23.2 million tons, in the season 2014/15 world consumption of oats is expected to remain at the level of 22.7 million tons.
In 2013/14 season, the largest share in total world consumption of 23.2 million, belongs to the EU countries with 8.2 million tons of consumption (as it is also the same in production). EU-27 countries were followed with consumption of 4.9 million tons by Russia, with consumption of 2.7 million tons by USA, 1.7 million tons of consumption by Canada and with 1 million tons of consumption by Australia. Other than 400 thousand tons of reduction in EU countries and the prediction of 300 thousand tons of decrease in Canada, in 2014/15 season in the world oats consumption, it is not excepted the amount of consumption in the countries in the first place will change significantly.
WORLD OATS TRADE
Amount of rye in the world trade is very small as in oats production. Every year average 2 million tons of oats are exported and imported. In world oats trade, the largest export share belongs to Canada. Canada is the country almost realizing all oats exports of the world. It is foreseen for Canada to perform an oats export of 1.7 million tons in 2013/14 season, to realize the same amount for the next season. Canadian Oats exports is followed by EU-27 countries with 293 thousand tons and Australia with 235 million tons.
A similar table in the eats export table of the world is seen in the oats imports. Referring to the world oats imports, it is seen that almost all of the world's imports are performed by the United States. 1.8 million tons of oats import in the 2013/14 season is expected to perform the import of 1.7 million tons in 2014/15 season. In world oats import USA is followed by China with 116 thousand tons , Mexico with 110 thousand tons and Norway with 50 thousand tons.
RYE AND OATS PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
Rye and oats cultivation areas in Turkey; come after wheat, barley, maize and rice. Rye cultivation area in Turkey in 1960 which was 670 thousand hectares has dropped to 242 thousand hectares in 1987. Products derived from this area was approximately 380 thousand tons, according to 1987 data. The present contraction in cultivation areas have been continued till today and in 2011 they were decreased to 128 thousand hectares. Cultivation areas which showed some increase in 2012 reaching to 143 thousand hectares remained at 138 thousand hectares in 2013. Despite the contraction of cultivation areas the increase in productivity has been effective in increasing production. According to the data of Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI), rye production which was 220 thousand tons of in Turkey in 2001, reached to 270 thousand tons in 2004, 343 thousand tons in 2009, and in 2013 365 thousand tons.. TSI and TMO (Soil Products Office) estimate the rye production will be 2014 300 thousand tons in Turkey in 2014. Oats cultivation areas in Turkey is much lower when compared to rye. Between 1938-1960 there was a steady increase in oats cultivation areas and began narrowing in subsequent years. In 1938, oats cultivation areas which was 248 thousand hectares has reached to 430 thousand hectares in 1960. However, a narrowing began in cultivation areas since 1960 and in 1975 decreased to 260 thousand hectares, 153 thousand hectares in 2000, in 2012 to 89 thousand hectares which was a very small area. In 2013 the cultivation are of oats was 92 thousand hectares and in 2014 is still expected to remain at this level.
The production parallel to the cultivation area, has increased in recent years and was followed by a steady decline for the next years. In 1964 oats production was reached to 550 thousand tons, 355 thousand tons in 1980 and dropped to 270 thousand tons in 1990. Since the 1990s, stability has not been achieved in the manufacturing and in 2000 production which was realized as 314 thousand tons fell to 189 thousand tons in 2007, and in 2012 reached to 210 thousand tons. In 2013, 235 thousand tons of oats production occurring in 2014 season is estimated to remain at 210 thousand tons. Despite the contraction experienced in the cultivation area of oats in recent years, the increase of yield in the rye like oats, prevents the decrease in production.