The nutritional value of pulses in terms of nutrition and body health has been recently emphasized frequently by nutritionist in health and food area in many countries around the world. As you know, 68th United Nations General Assembly has declared “2016 the International Year of Pulses” and panels, conferences and symposiums are organized to increase pulse consumption worldwide. In the same way, agricultural experts point out the importance of pulses in terms of soil health. Despite all of these, global pulses production is not sufficient when compared to demand for pulses. Currently, the world is seeking to increase pulses production.
Also, recent months, The Global Pulse Confederation (GPC) announces that the third Wednesday of January will be celebrated every year as ‘Pulse Day’ all over the world.
WORLD DRY BEAN&CHICKPEA PRODUCTION AND MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES
As everybody knows, the data for agricultural production, that everybody can reach easily, is updated rapidly. As well as even the updated data of current season, forecasts for the following season are also announced. However, there is no such data for pulses production yet. Today, The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announce the latest data and the date is 2014.
In general terms, dry beans are the most produced pulses all over the world. The world production of dry beans was approximately 24 million tons in 2010 and decreased by an amount to about 23 million tons in 2013. In 2014, the production increased again and reached 26,5 million tons which is the highest amount of the last 6 years. When observed in a basis of continents, Asia ranks first in dry beans and chickpea production. In 2014, 11.6 million tons of dry bean production was carried out in the Asian continent, it is followed by the Americas in the same year by 7,9 million tons and Africa by 6,1 million tons.
Chickpeas have the second place after dry beans for pulses production in the world. In 2010, the world chickpea production was 10,9 million tons and it was around 11 million tons in 2010-2011 and 2012. According to FAO data, the world chickpea production reached 13.3 million tons in 2013 and 13,7 million tons in 2014. Asia is dominant in the world chickpea production as well as seen in dry beans. It is even possible to say that, almost the entire chickpea production is realized in the Asian continent. That’s because, according to data from 2014, 11,7 million tons of a total of 13,7 million tons of world chickpea production was carried out in Asia. Asia is followed by Africa with 757 thousand tons of production, Oceania with production of 629 thousand tons, America with 479 thousand tons of production and Europe with 164 thousand tons of production.
Countries have focused on one or two items of pulse production. When we look at the production of pulses in 2014 on country basis, it is seen that Myanmar has the first position in world production. Myanmar which produced 4 million tons of pulses in 2012, has raised this amount 4,3 million tons in 2013. It continued to increase in 2014 and reached 4,6 million tons. Myanmar is immediately followed by India, which realized 3,7 million tons of dry beans in 2012, increased this to 4 million tons in 2014. The world’s third largest producer of dry beans is Brazil, which realized dry bean production with an amount of about 2,7 and 2,8 million tons in 2012 and 2013, produced 3,2 million tons of dry bean in 2014. According to 2014 data, Brazil is followed by USA with 1,3 million tons of production, Mexico with production of 1,2 million tons, Tanzania with 1,1 million tons of production and China with 1 million tons of production.
Chickpeas have the second place after dry beans for pulses production in the world. In 2012, India which produced 7,7 million tons of chickpea rose its production to 8,8 million tons in 2013. The chickpea production of India is increased 9,8 million tons in 2014. Australia which ranks second after India produced 813 thousand tons in 2013. This production is decreased 629 thousand tons in 2014. Ethiopia which ranks in chickpea production, produced 409 thousand tons of chickpea in 2013. Chickpea production amount of Ethiopia is raised 458 thousand tons in 2014. Chickpea production in Turkey which is come after Ethiopia, is decreased each year. Chickpea production which is 518 thousand tons in 2012 is decreased 506 thousand tons in 2013 and 450 thousand tons in 2014. Turkey is followed by Pakistan with 399 thousand tons of production, Iran with production of 261 thousand tons, Mexico with 171 thousand tons of production, USA with 127 thousand tons and Canada with 123 thousand tons of production.
WORLD DRY BEAN&CHICKPEA TRADE
Approximately 84 percent of the pulses produced in the world is to meet the domestic demand of the countries. The remaining portion of 16 percent is included in the world trade. According to the 2013 data of FAO about global pulses trade, the most exported pulses product is dry pea. Following dry peas, the most exported product is dry beans. While the export of dry beans is less than dry peas export regarding amount, its monetary value is higher.
While 3,6 million tons of dry bean are exported in 2010, this amount raised 4,4 million tons in 2011. Amount of exported dry beans is 4 million tons in 2013 and its monetary value is 3,8 billion dollars. Chickpea ranks fourth in global pulse export with 1,6 million tons after dry pea, dry bean and lentil. Chickpea export which is 1,1 million tons in 2010 risen 1,9 million tons in 2012. Chickpea export which decreased in 2013, is realized 1,6 million tons. Its monetary value is 1,1 million tons.
In global pulses import, global dry bean import which is 3,1 million tons in 2010, increased 3,5 million tons in 2012. Amount of dry bean import is 3,4 million tons in 2013 and its monetary value is 3,5 billion dollars. There has been very little increase in chickpea import in recent years. Import of chickpea which is 1 million tons in 2010 increased 1,4 million tons in 2012. Chickpea import is realized 1,6 million tons in 2013 and its monetary value is 1,2 billion dollars.
DRY BEAN & CHICKPEA PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
Dry pulses production in Turkey decreased drastically in the last 12 years due to the fact that the cultivation area of dry pulses decreased significantly in the last 10 years. Total pulses production also decreased to about 400 thousand tons in the last 10 years. According to this; the total pulses production, which was 1.4 million tons in 2006, declined to 1 million tons in 2015.
It is seen that the highest production amount of pulses belongs to that of chickpea. According to data obtained from TURKSTAT, Turkey’s chickpea production, which was 506 thousand tons in 2013, decreased to 450 thousand tons in 2014. Turkey, which produced 460 thousand tons of chickpeas in 2015, is expected to produce 455 tons of chickpeas in 2016.
While the production of dry bean amounted to 195 thousand tons in 2013, it increased to 215 thousand tons in 2014. It is expected that Turkey which produces 235 thousand tons of dry beans in 2015 will produce same amount in 2016.
PULSES TRADE IN TURKEY
Decrease in agricultural areas where pulses are cultivated and consequently decrease in production also cause increase in imports of dry pulses from Turkey. The total import of pulses, which was 272 thousand tons in 2012, rose to 335 thousand tons in 2013, 433 thousand tons in 2014 and 470 thousand tons in 2015.
The most imported product in pulses group is lentils. Chickpea is the third most imported product after lentils and peas. However, imports of chickpeas are on a downward trend. Turkey, which imported 34 thousand tons of chickpeas in 2012, increased this amount in 2013 and imported 56 thousand tons of chickpeas. In 2014, imports fell slightly to 41 thousand tons. In 2015, the downward trend continued to hit 37 thousand tons and in 2016 it decreased to 30 thousand tons.
The imported amount of dry beans, which is the most imported product in 2015 after lentils, peas and chickpea, is gradually decreasing. While 30 thousand tons of dry beans were imported in 2012, this amount decreased to 25 thousand tons in 2013. However, imports of dry beans, which rose significantly to 54 thousand tons in 2014, decreased to 34 thousand tons in 2015. The amount of dried beans imported in 2016 was 35 thousand tons.
Lentil has the highest share in exports as well as imports. Turkey’s export of chickpeas ranks 3rd among exported pulses. Chickpea export of Turkey is increased in 2015, as opposed to the previous two years, reached to 22 thousand tons. In 2016, the export of chickpeas was around 23 thousand tons. Its monetary value is 31 billion dollars.
Amount of exported dry bean is low as opposed to chickpea. Turkey which exported 2,500 tons dry beans in 2013, increased this amount to 8,900 tons with record rising in 2014. But, exporting dry beans decreased after this date. Turkey which is realized export of 4,400 tons dry beans in 2015, is estimated to export 2,700 tons dry beans in 2016. Its monetary value is 3,8 million dollars.