According to the data of International Grains Council (IGC) dated 26 March, total grain production amount in the world was recorded as 1.794 million tons in 2012/13 season, 2.001 million tons in 2013/14 season. IGC forecasting that the production amount will reach to 2.000 million tons by 1 million tons of decrease in 2014/15 season points out the decrease in projection of 2015/16. Global grain production will recede to 1.937 million tons in 2014/15 season accordingly.
Grains which can be found and consumed nearly everywhere on earth are used in making main foods like bread and flour that are highly important for human nutrition. Grain products which are wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, rye and sorghum in general are also the most consumed products at the same time. According to the data of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) dated 2013, grains cultivated on 721 million hectares on earth are believed to have been cultivated first in Mesopotamia 8 thousand years before.
Grains are currently accepted as essential products for a balanced diet in a lot of cuisine culture. Fiber, vitamin E and B, healthy fat, various minerals, carbohydrate and enzymes which are contained in grains naturally have great significance considering their benefits for human health. As well as grains, pulses like dry bean, kidney bean, lentil, broad bean and dry peas play a key role in healthy nutrition and become a significant part of a balanced diet when combined with grains.
Pulses are also believed to have been cultivated in Eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia nearly 5 thousand years ago. According to the data of FAO, pulses are being cultivated on almost 81 million hectares all over the world. It is obvious that experts define pulses as exceptionally healthy for human being as they include protein, fiber, amino acids, vitamins and low fat content.
WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION AND MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES
Cultivated land of grains has been expanding gradually in the world. According to the data of FAO, global grain harvest was realized on around 700 million hectares between 2005 and 2010. Grain cultivation area which has been over 700 million hectare since 2011 reached to 721 million hectares in 2013. Yields of grain cultivation have also been on rise since 2005. For all grains, approximate rate of yield which was 32 hg/ha in 2005 increased to 36 hg/ha in 2011 and 2012 by showing a little rise. Yield in 2013 also reached to 38 hg/ha.
Global grain production is on rise as well. According to the data of International Grains Council (IGC) dated 26 March, total grain production amount in the world was recorded as 1.794 million tons in 2012/13 season, 2.001 million tons in 2013/14 season. IGC forecasting that the production amount will reach to 2.000 million tons by 1 million tons of decrease in 2014/15 season points out the decrease in projection of 2015/16. Global grain production will recede to 1.937 million tons in 2014/15 season accordingly.
According to the data of FAO, the production amount which was less than 2.500 million tons in 2005, 2006 and 2007 increased to 2.527 million tons in 2008. Although the production amount showed a little decrease in 2009 and 2010, it continued to increase and reached to 2.779 million tons in 2013.
According to the data of FAO, the biggest grain producer in the world is China. Production amount of China is increasing every year. China which produced 483 million tons in 2009 increased its production amount to 498 million tons in 2010 and 520 million tons in 2011. Increasing production amounts reached to 543 million tons in 2012 and 554 million tons in 2013. The second largest grain producer after China is USA. USA of which grain production has been decreasing gradually showed an increase again in 2013 and produced 436 million tons of grain. The third largest grain producer India is also increasing its production amount. India, which increased its production of 250 million tons in 2009 to 293 million tons in 2011, remained around 293 million tons again in 2013. Total grain production amount of China, USA and India accounts 46 percent of global grain production in 2013. According to the data of FAO, other grain producers are Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, France, Canada, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Argentina, Vietnam, Germany, Thailand and Turkey. Although certain countries (Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Thailand) are not listed among the top ten wheat producers, they stand out in total grain production thanks to their high rice production.
Corn is the primary product in global grain production. Corn production which accounts more than one third of total grain production in 2013 increases gradually. According to the data of FAO, nearly 851 million tons of corn was produced in 2010. This amount reached to 887 million tons in 2011. Corn production which was recorded as 877 million tons with a little decrease exceeded 1 billion tons in 2013.
According to the report of International Grains Council (IGC) dated 26 March 2015 as well; corn production of the world which was 875 million tons in 2011/12 season decreased to 865 million tons in 2012/13 season. According to the forecast of IGC; world corn production started to rise and reached to 991 million tons in 2013/14 season. IGC’s forecast for 2014/15 season points out a decrease of 1 million tons. However, world corn production hit record high although the decrease of 1 million tons is forecasted. IGC has announced the latest projection in the report of 2015/16 season. The projection of 2015/16 season points out that world corn production is likely to decrease by 50 million tons in comparison to 2013/14 season.
Second largest production amount after corn belongs to wheat. According to the data obtained from the International Grains Council (IGC), wheat production standing at 679 million tons in the 2009/2010 season receded to 653 million tons by a decrease of 26 million tons in the 2010/2011 season and reached to 695 million tons with an increase of 42 million tons in 2011/12 season. Wheat production in the world decreased to 655 million tons with a record decrease of 40 million tons in 2012/13 season but then reached to 713 million tons in 2013/14 season with a record increase. IGC has foreseen an increase of 6 million tons (719 million tons) for the 2014/15 season in 26 March dated report and announced the projection of 2015/16 as 709 million tons. Accordingly, global wheat production is likely to decrease by 10 million tons in the new season.
Rice production has also been on rise. According to the report of IGC dated as 26 March 2015; the world rice production, which was 467 million tons in 2011/12 season, reached to 472 million tons with an increase of 5 million tons in 2012/13 season. Estimating that world rice production in 2013/14 reached to 476 million tons with an increase of 4 million tons compared to the previous season; IGC foresees a 1 million-ton (475 million tons) reduce for 2014/15 season.
Other products which are produced in high amount are barley, millet, oats and rye. According to the data of U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA); world barley production, which was around 151 million tons in 2009/10 season, has shown some decrease in recent years. Declining to 123,1 million tons in 2010/11 season, world barley production reached 133,5 million tons with a small increase in 2011/12 season. However, the production declined again in 2012/13 season and remained at 129,7 million tons level. In 2013/14 season, there was a significant increase in barley production like many other grain products and the production reached to 145,4 million tons. USDA projects that world barley production will decline to 140 million tons by decreasing approximately 5,4 million tons in 2014/15 season.
According to the data of USDA; world sorghum production, which was 57,2 million tons in 2009/10 season, reached to 61,1 million tons in 2010/11 season. Declining to 57 million tons in 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons, world sorghum production reached to 60,4 million tons in 2013/14 season. USDA estimates world sorghum production to reach to 62 million tons in 2014/15 season. According to the data of 2013/14 season; world’s largest sorghum producer is U.S. with 9,8 million tons.
World millet production, which was 32,5 million tons in 2010/11 season, declined to 27,4 million tons in 2011/12 season and reached to 30,4 million tons with an increase of approximately 3 million tons in 2012/13 season. USDA projects that world millet production, which decreased to 29 million tons in 2013/14 season, will reach to 30,3 million tons level again in 2014/15 season.
When the rye production is considered, which remains highly limited in comparison to the production of other grains, a downward trend stands out. 17.5 million tons in 2009/10 as the actual world rye production, receded approximately 6 million tons in 2010/11, down to 11.4 million tons. 2011/12 season it increased again and reached 12.2 million tons, 13.7 million tons in the 2012/13 season, reached 15.8 million tons in the 2013/14 season. USDA, foresees that in the 2014/15 season 14,4 million tons of production will take place.
According to USDA data; 23,5 million tons in 2009/10 realized as the actual world oat production, receded approximately 4 million tons in 2010/11, down to 19,6 million tons. Production reaching 22,3 million tons in the 2011/12 season, decreased to 21,1 million tons in the 2012/13 season, and in 2013/14 season started to increase again and reached to 23,5 million tons. The USDA foresight for 2014/15 production season is 22,5 million tons.
When country-based grain production is considered, some sorts become prominent in specific continents. Primary continent in corn production is America which is also native land of corn. The largest producers are USA, China, Brazil and Mexica. It seems that Asia covers most of the rice production. China, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh are known to be the largest rice producers. Asia continent is dominant in wheat production. India, USA and Russia come after the largest producer China. In barley production, Europe is the dominant continent. Leader countries in barley production are Russia, Germany, Canada, France and Ukraine. Europe is also dominant in oats production. Russia, Canada, USA, Poland and Australia are the leading producers.
WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION AND MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES
According to the data of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, a steady increase cannot be seen in cultivated area of pulses by years. Cultivated area which recedes a little from time to time increased to 81 million hectare in 2013 while it was 71 million hectare in 2005. Yields have also a similar view. Despite irregular fluctuations, yield of pulses has been gradually increasing in long term. Increase in cultivated lands and yields reflected upon the production. Pulses production was around 61 million tons in 2005, 2006 and 2007 and started to increase in 2008. Global pulses production which reached to 70 million tons in 2010 decreased to 68 million tons in 2011, and then increased again to 75 million tons in 2012. Global pulses production remained as 73 million in 2013 too.
The largest pulses producer country is India in the world. India produced 14,071 million tons pulses and increased this amount over 17 million tons in 2010 and 2011. It produced 16,7 million tons pulses in 2012 with a little decrease. In 2013, India’s pulses production increased to 18,3 million tons. Canada which comes right after India increased its pulses production that was 5 million tons in average to 6 million tons in 2013. The third largest pulses producer in the world, Myanmar produced almost 5,2 million tons pulses in 2012 and 2013. Other major producers are China, Nigeria, Brazil, Australia, Russia and Tanzania.
Dry bean is the primary product in pulses production. Dry bean production shows a gradual decrease in years. According to the data of FAO, totally 24 million tons of dry beans were produced in the world in 2010. This amount decreased to 23 million tons in 2011 and 2012. Global dry beans production in 2013 is 22,8 million tons. Another significant pulses product is chickpea along with dry beans. Global chickpea production which was around 11 million tons in 2011 and 2012 increased to nearly 13 million tons in 2013. There has been no gradual increase or decrease in production of dry peas. The production of dry peas which was 10 million tons in 2010 and 2012 exceeded over 11 million tons in 2013. Other significant pulses products are lentil and broad bean. Almost 5 million tons of lentil and 785 thousand tons of broad beans have been produced all over the world in 2013.
Asia is dominant in pulses production. It seems that India, Brazil, Myanmar and China are leading producers. Chickpea is another major pulses product which is manufactured mainly in Asia continent. India, Turkey, Pakistan, Australia and Iran are also the leading countries in chickpea production. Another product which is produced mainly in Asia is lentil. As it is in most of the products, the leader producer country is India. Canada, Turkey, USA and Nepal follow India. Dry pea production is also mainly realized in Europe. Leading dry peas producer countries are Canada, France, Russia and China. 82 percent of broad bean production is realized in Oceania. Australia covered more than half of global broad bean production in 2013.
WORLD GRAIN TRADE
According to the report of IGC dated 26 March, total grain amount in trade recorded as 269 million tons in 2012/13 season. IGC announced before that global grain trade reached to 307 million tons in 2013/14 season and estimates that it will reached 309 million tons by 2 million tons of increase in 2014/15 season. IGC announcing the projection of 2015/16 in the latest report forecast 304 million tons for grain trade.
According to the data of FAO as well, 343 million tons of grain was imported in the world in 2011. Value of these grains is 127 billion dollars. Global grain import showed an increase both in amount and in value in 2010. Accordingly, imported grains were nearly 336 million tons and their value was 95 billion dollars. The big difference in the total grain trade data of IGC and FAO is caused by the fact that IGC do not include rice to the total amount.
The largest grain importer in the world is Japan. Japan imported approximately 25 million tons of grain between 2007 and 2011. İt was also 25,1 million ton in 2011. The second largest grain importer after japan is Egypt. İt is known that import amount of Egypt increased steadily between 2007 and 2011. Egypt which imported 13,6 million tons of grains in 2007 increased its import rate to 14,5 million tons in 2009 although it decreased its import amount a little in 2008. Egypt which showed an increase in 2010 imported 16,8 million tons grains and increased this amount to 16,9 million tons in 2011.
The third largest importer after Egypt, Mexico which produces 13 million tons to 15 million tons between 2007 and 2010 increased its production amount to 16,9 million tons in 2011. Other major importers are Korea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Algeria, Spain and Netherland. Indonesia which produced 5,8 to 8,1 million tons between 2007 and 2010 stood out after it increased its import amount to 12,5 million tons in 2011.
Leading country in grain import is USA. USA imported almost 100 million tons of grain in 2007. This amount decreased to 93,6 million tons in 2008 and 77 million tons in 2009. USA which has been on rise in 2010 and imported 86,9 million tons of grain imported 85,9 million tons of grain in 2011.
The second largest grain importer France imported 25,5 million tons of grain in 2007 and increased this amount to 28,8 million tons in 2008, 29,7 million tons in 2009 and to 34,7 million tons in 2010.
The third largest importer Argentina decrease its import amount in 2007 and 2008 which was 28 million tons to 17,6 million tons in 2009. However, being on rise again, Argentina which imported 25,4 million tons in 2010 increased this amount to 30,3 million tons in 2011. Other major importers are Australia, Canada, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Thailand, Germany and India.
Wheat is another grain product which has a significant place in global grain trade. According to the IGC report, in the 2012/13 season, on the other hand, the world wheat trade was realized in parallel with the decrease in production. Estimating that the world wheat trade decreased to 141 million tons by a decrease of 4 million tons in 2012/13 season as compared to the previous season; IGC forecasts that the trade increased 14 million tons in the 2013/14 season and reached 155 million tons. IGC forecasting global wheat trade will remain as 153 million tons in 2014/15 season estimates this amount as 150 million tons in the projection of 2015/16 season. According to the data of Department of United States Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, (USDA FAS), the country which has highest import amount in 2014 is Egypt with 10,5 million tons of grain import amount. Indonesia and Algeria follow Egypt. In wheat export, however, European Union, USA and Canada shares the top three.
After wheat, most imported and exported product is corn. Almost 100-120 million tons of world corn production takes part in international trade. According to the report of IGC; corn trade which was 93 million tons in 2012/13 season reached to 120 million tons in 2013/14 season. However IGC forecasts that corn amount in world trade would drop. So, this season’s forecasted corn trade amount is 116 million tons. The projection of 2015/16 shows 118 million tons of corn trade. Japan is the leader in corn import with 15,4 million tons of import amount. Mexico and Korea follow Japan in this aspect. In corn export, USA is the leader with 44,4 million tons. Brazil and Ukraine follow USA.
In export and import, the other significant product is rice. According to the last report of IGC; international rice trade that was 39 million tons in 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons reached 43 million tons in 2013/14 season. The report of IGC forecast that global rice trade will reach to 42 million tons by a decrease of 1 million ton. While china comes first with 4 million tons in global rice import, Nigeria and Iran come right after china. In rice export, Thailand with 11 million tons, India with 8,7 million tons and Vietnam with 6,7 million tons share the top three.
The barley amount which is subject to world trade in the last four seasons has fluctuated between 15 and 23 million tons. Estimating that barley amount subjected to world trade in 2013/14 season is 23,8 million tons, USDA foresees that this amount will be almost at the same level (23,6 million tons) in 2014/15 season. According to the data of USDA FAS, the countries which import barley in 2014 most are Saudi Arabia, China and Turkey while the top exporter countries are EU countries, Australia and Russia. Other grain products that were traded are sorghum, oats, rye and millet. However import and export amounts of these products are highly limited.
WORLD PULSES TRADE
According to the data of FAO, 12,2 million pulses are traded internationally in 2011. The value of this trade was 9 billion dollars. Global pulses trade which was 10,6 million tons in 2007 increased a little in 2009 and reached to 11,8 million tons although it decreased in a little amount in 2008. It is observed that pulses trade which was 11,3 million tons in 2010 showed an increase in 2011. India is the largest pulses importer in the world. India imported nearly 3 million tons in 2007 and reduce this amount to 2,5 million tons by decreasing a little in 2008. India’s pulses import which was on rise in 2009 increased to 3,75 million tons and by decreasing again in 2010, it reduced to 2,3 million tons. India’s unsteady pulses import reached to 3,2 million tons in 2011.
The second largest importer after India is China. China increased its pulses import which was 317 thousand tons in 2007 to 350 thousand tons in 2008, 421 tons in 2009 and 684 thousand tons in 2010. China which imported 790 thousand tons in 2011 shows a steady increase in pulses import. Following China, Pakistan decreased its pulses import which was 520 thousand tons in 2007 to nearly 300 thousand tons in 2008 and 2009. Being on rise again, pulses import was around 684 thousand tons in 2010. İt reached to 790 thousand tons in 2011. Other major pulses importers are Egypt, Turkey, Bangladesh, UAE, USA, Italy and Spain.
Canada is the leader country in pulses export. Canada exported 3,5 million tons of pulses in 2007 and increased this amount to 4,1 million tons although it decreased a little in 2008. Canada which exported 4,3 million tons while continuing to increase in 2010 keeps the same amount and exported 4,3 million tons of pulses in 2011. The second largest exporter is Australia. It increased its pulses export amount steadily between 2007 and 2011. Accordingly, pulses export which was 530 thousand tons in 2007 increased to 608 thousand tons in 2008, 877 thousand tons in 2009 and 1 million tons in 2010. Export amount in 2011 was 1,2 million tons. The third largest pulses exporter in the world, China increased its pulses export which was 859 thousand tons in 2007 to 1 million tons in 2008 and exported around 1 million tons in 2009. With a little decrease in 2010, pulses export reduced to 999 thousand tons in 2010 and to 991 thousand tons in 2011. Other major pulses exporters are USA, Myanmar, France, Russia, Argentina, Ukraine and Turkey.
Leading product in international pulses trade is dry bean. Dry bean import which is around 3 million tons in the whole world was 3,3 million tons in 2011. So it dropped behind dry peas. Leading country in dry beans import is India with 630 thousand tons. EU with 27 countries follows India.
China takes the leadership in dry beans export. After China which exported 949 thousand tons of dry beans, there comes Myanmar and USA. After dry beans, the most traded product is dry peas.
Dry peas import which was around 2 million tons in 2008 was recorded as nearly 4 million tons in 2009 and 2010 and also 4,3 million tons in 2011. India is the leading country in dry peas import with 1,8 million tons. China and EU countries follow India. Also in dry peas export, Canada is well ahead with 2,8 million tons. Russia and USA are other significant countries in dry peas export.
Another pulses product which is highly traded is lentil. 1,8 million tons of lentil was imported in 2008 and this amount reached to 1,6 million tons in 2009 with a steady increase. Lentil import was recorded as 1,9 million tons in 2011 after reaching over 1,8 million tons in 2010. Leading lentil importer in the world is Turkey. Turkey imported 309 thousand tons of lentils in 2011. The second largest importer after Turkey is EU countries. Canada is the leader country in lentil export with 1,1 million tons. Australia and Turkey follow Canada in lentil export.
Chickpea import was also around 1 million tons between 2008 and 2011. The leader exporter in chickpea is Pakistan with 279 thousand tons. India and EU countries follow Pakistan. In chickpea export, Australia is the leader with 416 thousand tons. India and Russia are other major chickpea exporters.