Ukraine challenges EU grain export bans at WTO

29 September 20233 min reading

Ukraine, currently facing conflict with Russia, has lodged a complaint with the World Trade Organization against Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia over their grain export bans. This escalates tensions within the European Union and threatens Ukraine’s agricultural sector.

In an escalating trade tussle that could test the bounds of European unity, Ukraine has initiated a formal complaint with the World Trade Organization (WTO) against Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. The trio of nations has imposed unilateral bans on several Ukrainian agricultural exports, notably grains. Ukraine’s move comes in response to what they term as a “violation of their international obligations.”

The bans present a fresh challenge to European solidarity, a principle that has guided the bloc for decades. Following Russia’s blockade of Ukrainian ports on the Black Sea, the European Commission had recently green-lighted the resumption of Ukrainian grain sales across the EU. However, breaking ranks with the wider EU consensus, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia swiftly announced their intentions to enforce their own bans.

Central to the dispute is the contention of the three EU nations that they’re safeguarding their farmers from an inundation of tariff-free, low-cost grain imports from Ukraine, which they fear could plummet local prices. Poland’s determination in this aspect seems particularly motivated by its forthcoming October elections, where rural voters, who are affected by the spike in Ukrainian agricultural exports, play a pivotal role.

Reflecting the gravity of the situation, Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal stated that the unilateral bans heighten a political showdown that pits farmer against farmer, complicating the relationship between a key global food supplier and three EU members. Further highlighting the tension, Ukraine’s trade chief Taras Kachka expressed that these measures by Hungary and Poland demonstrate a total distrust towards the European Commission. He conveyed that the defiance of these nations not only poses an internal matter for the EU but presents the question of whether international trade partners can trust that Brussels truly represents the entire EU.


Amidst the unfolding drama, Ukraine hasn’t ruled out countermeasures. An exclusive interview with Politico revealed Kyiv’s readiness to retaliate against Polish fruit and vegetable exports if the bans persist. Furthermore, Ukrainian deputy trade minister Taras Kachka mentioned the potential imposition of bans on select Polish farm produce.

The dispute shines a light on the broader challenges Ukraine faces in its agriculture sector amidst the conflict with Russia. The bans not only affect Ukraine’s economy but also pose challenges to its beleaguered farmers, whose fields have often been targets of conflict. Any further restrictions on Ukraine’s agricultural exports can have dire consequences for its economy and could play into Russia’s strategy to instigate a global food crisis.

With the official request for “consultations” submitted to the WTO, a 60-day dialogue period has been triggered. If these talks do not yield results, Ukraine could request a panel of adjudicators to intervene. The WTO has been the go-to platform for nations to resolve trade disputes, but with the U.S. recently blocking the appointment of new judges, the path forward may involve alternative appellate processes, which some EU members have recently joined.


While the immediate concern is the economic implications for both Ukraine and the trio of EU nations, at its core, this issue delves deep into the European principle of unity and solidarity. As nations prioritize domestic concerns, the cohesive fabric of the EU could face its sternest test yet.

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