It is observed that the highest pulses production in 2013 was in the continent of Asia with 33.8 million tons. The most exported pulses product is dry peas. In 2011, the worldwide dry peas export was 4.8 million tons. Furthermore, dry peas are the most imported pulses products worldwide. In 2011, 3.2 million tons of dry peas were imported.
Pulses, which are abundant in proteins required by human body, consist of nutriments such as lentils, chick peas, dry beans, lupines, kidney beans, etc. Pulses are not only a source of proteins, but of carbohydrates and fibers as well. In this respect, pulses, which are quite useful for humans, source 22 percent of herbal proteins for human nutrition.
Legumes, which are highly important not only for Turkey, but for the whole world, are the main source of herbal proteins for human nutrition. Among field crops, they are ranked right after grains regarding both production and cultivation area. A pulses production of approximately 73 million tons was made globally only in 2013. The importance of this product group was realized even more with decreased production rates due to recent droughts, etc. especially in developing countries such as Turkey.
Grains rank first among the total area of field crops production in Turkey with a 74 percent ratio. They are immediately followed by edible legume grains with a ratio of 8.3 percent on the total cultivated area of field crops. Crop rotation for chickpeas and lentils in arid and semi-arid areas, and dry beans in soggy areas, is important both in terms of the need to increase the yield obtained from unit area and the reduction of fallow land.
WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION AND MAIN PRODUCER COUNTRIES
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data, the global pulses production in 2003 and 2004 was approximately 60 million tons. In 2005, 2006 and 2007, the average world production of pulses stood at 61 million, 62.7 million tons in 2008 and increased in 2009 to 64.2 million tons. Between 2010 and 2013, the world pulse production drew an unstable graph. Accordingly; In 2010 production was 70.6 million tons whereas it decreased to 68.7 million tons in 2011. However, it increased again to 75 million tons in 2012. A decrease was observed again in 2013 to 73.2 million tons. The most important reason for this decline in recent years is observed as the encouragement of corn and other crops by countries for biodiesel production.
The increase of the world's population along with the increasing need for food every year, the area for pulses cultivation increases by each passing year. The average pulses cultivation between 2003 and 2011 spread to an area of 73 million hectares and this has increased to over 80 million hectares by the year 2012. In 2013, this area has increased to 83 million hectares. It was recorded that the yield per hectare in 2012 was 9.358 kg/ha, and in 2013 it was 9.038 kg/ha.
When we look at the production of pulses in some countries, it is seen that India has the first position in world production. India produced 14 million tons of pulses in 2009 and has raised this amount over 17 million tons in 2010 and 2011. The amount of production in the country dropped to 16.7 million tons in 2012 and it increased again to 18.3 million tons in 2013. India is immediately followed by Canada, which increased its annual average pulses production of 5 million tons to 6.1 million tons in 2013. The world's third largest producer of pulses is Myanmar, which realized pulses production with an amount of about 5.2 million tons in 2012 and 2013.
In general, pulses are grown all over the world. When observed in a basis of continents, it is evident that the highest pulses production in 2013 was in the continent of Asia with 33.8 million tons. Asia is followed immediately by Africa with 15.4 million tons. The continent of America has the third place with 15.1 tons of production in 2013. 6 million tons were produced in Europe, whereas it is 2.7 million in Oceania.
PRODUCT BASED WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION
Countries have focused on one or two items of pulse production. In general terms, dry beans are the most produced pulses all over the world. The world production of dry beans was approximately 21 million tons in 2009, increased to 24 million tons in 2010 and decreased by an amount to about 23 million tons in 2011-12. In 2013, the worldwide dry beans production was 22.8 million tons. The Asian continent is the first in world dry bean production. In 2013, 10.1 million tons of dry bean production was carried out in the Asian continent, it is followed by the Americas in the same year by 7 million tons and Africa by 4.9 million tons.
Chickpeas have the second place after dry beans for pulses production in the world. In 2009, the world chickpea production was 10.4 million tons and it was around 11 million tons in 2010-2011 and 2012. According to FAO data, the world chickpea production reached 13.1 million tons in 2013. Asia is dominant in the world chickpea production as well as seen in dry beans. It is even possible to say that, almost the entire chickpea production is realized in the Asian continent. That's because, according to data from 2013, 11 million tons of a total of 13.1 million tons of world chickpea production was carried out in Asia. Asia is followed by Oceania with production of 813 thousand tons, America with 596 thousand tons of production, Africa with 530 thousand tons of production and Europe with 113 thousand tons of production.
Following dry beans and chickpeas, the third most produced pulses in the world are dry peas. In 2009-2010, world production of dry peas was around 10 million tons, this decreased to 9.9 million tons in 2011 and increased again to 10.5 million tons in 2012. In 2013, it continued to increase according to FAO data and it is observed that the production reached 11.1 million tons.
According to the 2013 data, the largest share of dry pea production in the world was owned by American continent with 4.7 million tons. In the same year, America is followed by Europe with 3 million tons, Asia with 2.3 million tons and Africa with 752 thousand tons.
WORLD PULSES TRADE
Approximately 85 percent of the pulses produced in the world is to meet the domestic demand of the countries. The remaining portion of 15 percent is included in the world trade. Canada is a leading country in world pulses export. Export of pulses over the years greatly increased in Canada, which elevated the position of the exporter with a serious increase in the amount of production. After Canada, the United States is the largest exporter of pulses. USA is followed by China, Australia, Argentina, France, Turkey and Mexico. India holds the first place regarding the import of pulses. According to 2006 data, 10 percent of world pulses import is carried out by India. India is followed by Pakistan, Spain and USA.
Regarding amounts, the most exported pulses product is dry pea. In 2011, the worldwide dry peas export was 4.8 million tons. The monetary value of this export amount is $ 1.9 million. Following dry peas, the most exported product is dry beans. While the export of dry beans is less than dry peas export regarding amount, its monetary value is higher. The amount of dry beans exported in 2011 was 3.3 million tons, while its monetary value was $ 3 million. Dry beans are followed by lentils with 1.9 million tons and chickpeas with 1.1 million tons.
Americas reach the highest value regarding to export of dry beans, chickpeas, lentils and dry peas. The leading pulses product among goods exported from the Americas is dry peas. In 2011, the dry peas export in the Americas was 3.2 million tons. This amount corresponds to 67.9 percent of world dry pea exports. Dry peas are immediately followed by lentil among the products exported by the American continent. In 2011, Americas have exported 1.3 million tons of lentils, 1.1 million tons of dry beans and 241 thousand tons of chickpeas.
Americas are followed by Asia in world exports of pulses. The dominant exported pulses products in Asian continent are dry beans. In 2011, 1.6 million tons of dry beans were exported in Asia, followed by 316 thousand tons of lentils, 296 thousand tons of chickpeas and 44 thousand tons of dry peas. The third largest export region is Europe. In 2011, 1.1 million tons of dry peas were exported in Europe. Dry peas are followed by dry beans with 139 thousand tons, chickpeas with 116 thousand tons and lentils with 37 thousand tons. In Oceania, the main exported pulses are chickpeas. It is indicated that, the export of chickpeas is followed by lentils, dry peas and dry beans. In the African continent, a total of 526 thousand tons of pulses were exported in 2011. The main exported pulses are dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils respectively.
The most imported pulses in the entire world are still dry peas. In 2011, a total of 4.3 million tons of dry peas were imported. Following dry peas, the most imported product is dry beans. Asian continent is the first in importing pulses. Accordingly, the Asian continent has imported 3.2 million tons of lentils, 1.3 million tons of dry beans and 1.1 million tons of lentils in 2011. Asian continent is followed by Europe. In 2011, 657 thousand tons of dry peas were imported in the European continent. In Americas, the most imported product is dry beans. In 2011, 889 thousand tons of dry beans were imported in the continent. Dry beans are the most imported products in Africa and Oceania. In 2011, the dry bean import in Africa was 408 thousand tons, whereas it was 15 thousand tons in Oceania.
PULSES PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
The acreage of dry pulses in Turkey decreased significantly in the last 12 years. In 2003, the total cultivation area of dry pulses was 12 million hectares, whereas in 2012 this dropped to 7.2 million hectares. In 2013, it increased by some amount and reached 8 million hectares. However, it decreased again to 7.4 million tons in 2014. Accordingly, the total pulses production has also decreased about 400 thousand tons in the last 12 years. Despite the narrowing of acreages, the yield increased for many pulses products, but this increase in yield has failed to increase the total pulses production. As a result, the total pulses production was 1.4 million tons in 2003, whereas it decreased to 1 million tons in 2014.
It was observed that, the highest amount of pulses production is made with chickpeas. According to TÜİK data, the Turkish chickpea production in 2003 was 600 thousand tons, whereas it decreased by approximately 150 thousand tons of the last 10 years and has dropped to 506 thousand tons in 2013. The highest production volume after chickpeas belongs to red lentils. The red lentil production was 485 thousand tons in 2003 and increased to 580 thousand tons in 2006, whereas it dropped all the way to 106 thousand tons in 2008 and increased by an amount in the following years, reaching 395 thousand tons in 2013. The red lentil production carried out in 2014 was 325 thousand tons. The amount of dry bean production, which is another important product, was around 250 thousand tons in 2003, and then gradually declined and decreased to 195 thousand tons in 2013. In 2014, it increased by some amount and reached 215 thousand tons.
PULSES IMPORT AND EXPORT IN TURKEY
The reduction of agricultural land in which legumes are cultivated and consequently, the decrease in the volume of production leads to an increase in Turkey's dry beans importation. The total pulses import of 271 thousand tons in 2010, has increased to 334 thousand tons in 2013, while it increased to 448 thousand tons in 2014. The most imported product among the pulses group is lentil. In 2009, 141 thousand tons of lentils were imported. This amount increased to 210 thousand tons in 2010, and 309 thousand tons in 2011. In 2012, a decline was experienced in lentil imports and 168 thousand tons of lentils were imported. The 2013 import volume was 199 thousand tons. It is estimated that, this amount increased significantly in 2014 and reached 303 thousand tons.
According to TÜİK data, the most imported pulses after the lentils are were chickpeas in 2013. The chickpeas import was 4 thousand tons in 2009, 7 thousand tons in 2010 and 8 thousand tons in 2011, whereas it increased significantly by the year 2012. In 2012, the chickpea import volume was 34 thousand tons. This amount increased to approximately 57 thousand tons in 2013. It is estimated that, 41 thousand tons of chickpeas were imported in 2014.
Dry pea is another pulses product with increasing import volumes after lentil and chickpea. In 2010, 3.5 thousand tons of dry peas were imported by Turkey, whereas this amount has increased to 37 thousand tons of dry peas in 2011. Imports were somewhat lower in 2012 and decreased to 25 thousand tons, whereas it increased again to 43 thousand tons in 2013. It is estimated that, 33 thousand tons of dry peas were imported in 2014.
Following lentil, chickpea and dry pea, the most imported product was dry bean in 2013, which has a gradually decreasing import volume. In 2009, 53 thousand tons of dry beans were imported, whereas this amount decreased to 37 thousand tons in 2010 and 33 thousand tons in 2011. Dry bean imports continued to decline and decreased to approximately 29 thousand tons in 2012 and approximately 25 thousand tons in 2013. However, imports increased again in 2014, which is estimated to have reached to 52 thousand tons. Lupine import in Turkey is increasing as well. In 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, lupine import could not even reach to an amount of one thousand tons, whereas it reached to 1.4 thousand tons in 2014.
Lentil has the highest share in 2013 in exports as well as imports. In 2011, Turkey has reached the highest amount with 212 thousand tons in lentil exports. In 2012, this decreased by some amount and dropped to 197 thousand tons. The decline continued in 2013 and 2014, and lentil imports were recorded as 178 and 183 thousand tons respectively. The second most exported pulses product in 2013 was dry pea. Dry pea exports, which amounted to 23 thousand tons in years 2011 and 2012, increased to 31 thousand tons in 2013. It is estimated that, it decreased to 24 thousand tons in 2014.
The chickpea export is gradually decreasing in Turkey as well. Accordingly, chickpea exports were almost 56 thousand tons in 2010, whereas they decreased to 28 thousand tons in 2011 and 25 thousand tons in 2012. Chickpea exports continued to decline in 2013 and stayed at a level of 19 thousand tons. It is estimated that, it decreased to 18 thousand tons in 2014. Dry bean exports are quite low. Dry bean export was 1.6 thousand tons in 2010 and was around 1.3 to 2.5 thousand tons in 2011, 2012 and 2013, whereas it is estimated to have increased to 8.8 thousand tons in 2014.