WORLD PULSES MARKET
01 July 201612 min reading
Increase trend in pulses production continued in the following years; and production increased to 77,2 million tons in 2013 and 77,6 million tons in 2014. It is seen that growth in both cultivation areas and efficiency affected this increase; because pulses cultivation area which was 71 million hectares in 2005 exceeded 85 million hectares in 2014. At the same time, efficiency which was 8 thousand 533 hectoliters per hectare reached 9 thousand 65 hectoliters in 2014.
The nutritional value of pulses in terms of nutrition and body health has been recently emphasized frequently by nutritionist in health and food area in many countries around the world. In the same way, agricultural experts point out the importance of pulses in terms of soil health. Despite all of these, global pulses production is not sufficient when compared to demand for pulses. Currently, the world is seeking to increase pulses production.
WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION AND MAIN PRODUCER COUNTRIES
As everybody knows, the data for agricultural production, that everybody can reach easily, is updated rapidly. As well as even the updated data of current season, forecasts for the following season are also announced. However, there is no such data for pulses production yet. Today, The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announce the latest data and the date is 2014.
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data, the global pulses production which was approximately 61 million tons in 2005, 2006 and 2007 reached 62,7 million tons in 2008, 64,2 million tons in 2009 and 70,6 million tons in 2010. Decreasing to 69,2 million tons in 2011, production amount increased again to 75,1 million tons in 2012. Increase trend in pulses production continued in the following years; and production increased to 77,2 million tons in 2013 and 77,6 million tons in 2014. It is seen that growth in both cultivation areas and efficiency affected this increase; because pulses cultivation area which was 71 million hectares in 2005 exceeded 85 million hectares in 2014. At the same time, efficiency which was 8 thousand 533 hectoliters per hectare reached 9 thousand 65 hectoliters in 2014.
When we look at the production of pulses in 2014 on country basis, it is seen that India has the first position in world production. India produced 14 million tons of pulses in 2009 and has raised this amount over 17 million tons in 2010 and 2011. The amount of production in the country dropped to 16.7 million tons in 2012 and it increased again to 18.3 million tons in 2013. It continued to increase in 2014 and reached 19,9 million tons. India is immediately followed by Canada, which increased its annual average pulses production of 5 million tons to 6.1 million tons in 2013. However the production amount decreased again to 5,8 million tons in 2014. The world's third largest producer of pulses is Myanmar, which realized pulses production with an amount of about 5 million tons in 2013 and 2014.
In general, pulses are grown all over the world. When observed in a basis of continents, it is evident that the highest pulses production in 2014 was in the continent of Asia with 35,1 million tons. Asia is followed immediately by Africa with 17 million tons. The continent of America has the third place with 15.3 tons of production in 2014. 6,9 million tons were produced in Europe, whereas it is around 3,1 million tons in Oceania.
PRODUCT BASED WORLD PULSES PRODUCTION
Countries have focused on one or two items of pulse production. In general terms, dry beans are the most produced pulses all over the world. The world production of dry beans was approximately 21 million tons in 2009, increased to 24 million tons in 2010 and decreased by an amount to about 23 million tons in 2011-12-13. In 2014, the production increased again and reached 25 million tons which is the highest amount of the last 6 years. The Asian continent is the first in world dry bean production. In 2014, 10.6 million tons of dry bean production was carried out in the Asian continent, it is followed by the Americas in the same year by 7,7 million tons and Africa by 5.9 million tons.
Chickpeas have the second place after dry beans for pulses production in the world. In 2009, the world chickpea production was 10.4 million tons and it was around 11 million tons in 2010-2011 and 2012. According to FAO data, the world chickpea production reached 13.3 million tons in 2013 and 14,2 million tons in 2014. Asia is dominant in the world chickpea production as well as seen in dry beans. It is even possible to say that, almost the entire chickpea production is realized in the Asian continent. That's because, according to data from 2014, 11,9 million tons of a total of 14.2 million tons of world chickpea production was carried out in Asia. Asia is followed by Oceania with production of 817 thousand tons, Africa with 765 thousand tons of production, America with 478 thousand tons of production and Europe with 174 thousand tons of production.
Following dry beans and chickpeas, the third most produced pulses in the world are dry peas. In 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 world production of dry peas was around 10-11 million tons, this reached to 11.4 million tons in 2013 and decreased to 11.3 million tons in 2012.
According to the 2014 data, the largest share of dry pea production in the world was owned by American continent with 4.4 million tons. In the same year, America is followed by Europe with 3,3 million tons, Asia with 2.5 million tons and Africa with 656 thousand tons.
WORLD PULSES TRADE
Approximately 84 percent of the pulses produced in the world is to meet the domestic demand of the countries. The remaining portion of 16 percent is included in the world trade. According to the data of FAO about global pulses trade, Canada is a leading country in world pulses export with its export amount of 5 million tons. After Canada, Australia comes with 1,4 million tons, Myanmar with 1,3 million tons, USA with 1,1 million tons and China with 841 thousand tons. These countries are followed by Russia, France, India, Ethiopia, United Kingdom and Turkey.
India ranks first in pulses import. According to 2013 data, 28,4 percent, i.e. 3,8 million, of global pulses import was of India. China with1,1 million tons, Bangladesh with 816 thousand tons, Pakistan and Egypt with 433 thousand tons, United Arab Emirates with 391 thousand tons and Brazil with 373 thousand tons follow India.
Regarding amounts, the most exported pulses product is dry pea. In 2013, the worldwide dry peas export was 4.6 million tons. The monetary value of this export amount is $ 2.1 million. Following dry peas, the most exported product is dry beans. While the export of dry beans is less than dry peas export regarding amount, its monetary value is higher. The amount of dry beans exported in 2013 was 4 million tons, while its monetary value was $ 3,8 million. Dry beans are followed by lentils with 2.6 million tons and chickpeas with 1.6 million tons. Lentil and chickpea are listed as 3rd and 4th in global export.
Americas reach the highest value regarding to export of dry beans, chickpeas, lentils and dry peas. In 2013, the dry peas export in the Americas was 3.3 million tons. This amount corresponds to 71.6 percent of world dry pea exports. Dry peas are immediately followed by lentil among the products exported by the American continent. In 2013, Americas have exported 2 million tons of lentils, 1 million tons of dry beans and 287 thousand tons of chickpeas.
Americas are followed by Asia in world exports of pulses. The dominant exported pulses products in Asian continent are dry beans. In 2013, 2,2 million tons of dry beans were exported in Asia, followed by 477 thousand tons of chickpeas, 286 thousand tons of lentils and 65 thousand tons of dry peas. In 2013, the third largest export region is Oceania. In Oceania, the main exported pulses are chickpeas (550 thousand tons). It is indicated that, the export of chickpeas is followed by lentils (316 thousand tons), dry peas (189 thousand tons) and dry beans (63 thousand tons).
The fourth largest export region is Europe. In 2013, 873 thousand tons of dry peas were exported in Europe. Dry peas are followed by chickpeas with 200 thousand tons, dry beans with 124 thousand tons and lentils with 35 thousand tons. In the African continent, a total of 851 thousand tons of pulses were exported in 2013. The main exported pulses are dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils respectively.
Asian continent is the first in importing pulses. Accordingly, the Asian continent has imported 3.2 million tons of dry peas, 1.5 million tons of dry beans and 1.7 million tons of lentils in 2013. Asian continent is followed by Europe. In 2013, 613 thousand tons of dry peas were imported by the European continent. In Americas, the most imported product is dry beans. In 2013, 937 thousand tons of dry beans were imported in the continent. Dry beans are the most imported products in Africa and Oceania. In 2013, the dry bean import in Africa was 351 thousand tons, whereas it was 15 thousand tons in Oceania.
PULSES PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
The acreage of dry pulses in Turkey decreased significantly in the last 10 years. In 2006, the total cultivation area of dry pulses was 11 million decares, whereas in 2012 this dropped to 7.2 million decares. In 2013, it increased by some amount and reached 8 million decares. However, it decreased again to 7.4 million tons in 2014 and 6,9 million decare in 2015. Accordingly, the total pulses production has also decreased about 400 thousand tons in the last 10 years. Despite the narrowing of acreages, the yield increased for many pulses products, but this increase in yield has failed to increase the total pulses production. As a result, the total pulses production was 1.4 million tons in 2006, whereas it decreased to 1 million tons in 2015.
It was observed that, the highest amount of pulses production is made with chickpeas. According to TÜİK data, the Turkish chickpea production in 2006 was 551 thousand tons, whereas it decreased by approximately 100 thousand tons of the last 10 years and has dropped to 460 thousand tons in 2015. The highest production volume after chickpeas belongs to red lentils. The red lentil production was 580 thousand tons in 2006, whereas it dropped all the way to 106 thousand tons in 2008 and increased by an amount in the following years, reaching 325 thousand tons in 2014. The red lentil production carried out in 2014 was 340 thousand tons and 235 thousand tons in 2015.
The amount of dry bean production, which is another important product, was around 195 thousand tons in 2006, and then gradually declined and decreased to 181 thousand tons in 2009. In 2014, it increased by some amount and reached 215 thousand tons.
PULSES IMPORT AND EXPORT IN TURKEY
The reduction of agricultural land in which legumes are cultivated and consequently, the decrease in the volume of production leads to an increase in Turkey's dry beans importation. The total pulses import of 260 thousand tons in 2012 has increased to 433 thousand tons in 2014, while it increased to 470 thousand tons in 2015.
The most imported product among the pulses group is lentil. In 2013, 199 thousand tons of lentils were imported. This amount increased to 303 thousand tons in 2014, and 313 thousand tons in 2015. According to TÜİK data, the most imported pulses after the lentils are were dry peas in 2015. The dry peas import was 25 thousand tons in 2012, 43 thousand tons in 2013 and 33 thousand tons in 2014. It increased significantly and reached 82 thousand tons.
Chickpea is among the most imported products after lentil and peas. However chickpea import is decreasing. Turkey which imports 34 thousand tons of chickpea in 2012 increased this amount in 2013 and imported 53 thousand tons of chickpea. Import amount decreased a little and reached to 41 thousand tons in 2014. It continued to decrease in 2015 and reached 37 thousand tons.
Following lentil, dry pea and chickpea, the most imported product was dry bean in 2015, which has a gradually decreasing import volume. In 2011, 33 thousand tons of dry beans were imported, whereas this amount decreased to 30 thousand tons in 2012 and 25 thousand tons in 2013. However, dry beans import which reached a significant level by increasing 54 thousand tons decreased again to 34 thousand tons in 2015.
Lentil has the highest share in 2015 in exports as well as imports. In 2011, Turkey has reached the highest amount with 212 thousand tons in lentil exports. In 2012, this decreased by some amount and dropped to 197 thousand tons. The decline continued in 2013 and 2014, and lentil imports were recorded as 178 and 183 thousand tons respectively. However, it increased again in 2015 and reached 219 thousand tons.
The second most exported pulses product in 2015 was dry pea. Dry pea exports, which amounted to 23 thousand tons in years 2011 and 2012, increased to 31 thousand tons in 2013. It is estimated that, it decreased to 24 thousand tons in 2014, but started to increase in 2015 and reached 62 thousand tons. Chickpea export of Turkey has also increased in 2015 contrary to the last 3 years and reached 22 thousand tons. However it is still far from 28 thousand tons level in 2011.
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