Saad I. Yousif *, Prof. Dr. Mustafa BAYRAM*#
*University of Gaziantep, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering
CONCRETE TYPE SILO OF WHEAT SUMMARY
The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied; consistency product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing these losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management.
The grains which are used food for humans since prehistoric times and is considered one of the most important economic crops in the present day. Today, the process of storing grain is one of the main economic weapons for the great powers. Incorrect storage conditions cause weight losses in grains up to 50 % in some countries, (AlSaaidy, 1983).
Because of the nourishment necessity of population in the world, sources in the world must be used sustainably. Recently, increased farm production is based on obtaining more products from a unit area. However, storage safety processing and evaluating of these products are more important. Storage of products after the harvesting until processing is a necessity. The object of grain storage to protect the stored grain from weather, birds and rodents, and insects. In the U.S, grain is generally stored in around metal bins, flat storage, and concrete silo; occasionally grain is plied on the ground and covered with plastic for short-time or temporary storage.
In Africa and elsewhere in the developing world, grain is also stored underground and in clay bin. In addition to the proper selection and size of a storage system, its location is important with respect to drainage traffic patterns, and safety (Brooek, et al., 2009).
Food both vegetable and animal origin undergoes some changes because of its structures when kept for long time. Therefore, storage or keeping food and food’s raw materials without spoiling is vital the aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness until. Storage is done to maintain harvesting quality of products, not to improve it. The seed deterioration under storage condition is the natural phenomenon. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied according to product variety, quality and quantity losses increase (Nasreen, 2000; Sisinan, 2005; Sisinan and Albut, 2010).
The quality of grains during storage is affected by entomological, microbiological and environmental factors, resulting in physicochemical and organoleptic changes that lead to significant product quantitative losses (Iconomou et al., 2006). The losses of grain because of spoilage, sprouting, warming, insect and mold damages cost millions of dollars per year during harvesting, carrying and storing. These losses and spoilage during storage can only be reduced by suitable storage and storage management and this leads to contribute to country economy. Sisman et al. (2004) reported that different storages buildings which are affected to storage condition lead to increase of losses during storage.
The seeds continue the respiration after harvest in order to sustain their life. The respiration is the transformation of seed components into carbon dioxide by atmospheric oxidation. During this physiological process in the seed, the carbohydrates in the seed are disintegrated and, water and heat are released. As a result of tins, structural deterioration and heating in the seed can be occurred (Gumuskeserv 1999). Seed longevity is greatly influenced by storage conditions, such as relative humidity and temperature, and lowering of these parameters significantly increases the storage life of seeds (Sharmaetal, 2007). The temperatures in the store and moisture contents of the seed which are called as storage conditions are the most important factors affecting the losses. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied according to product variety, quality and quantity losses increase.
DIFFERENT METHOD FOR GRAIN STORAGE
Different methods of storage of grain from one country to another from one region to another, according to the financial possibility and necessary to finance and the creation of silos and accessories. The most important methods used for the storage of wheat:
• Open storage above the ground (temporary storage)
• Roofer: In this method either wheat grain stored in bulk and the walls here consolidate and strengthen, especially if it was based on stacks grain, and also stored in bags.
• Modern silos: The most advanced and sophisticated than the technical aspects and technical apparatus, equipped with the mechanism for mobilization and discharge control with varying degrees of technical.
The stores vary according to size, function and capacity:
A - Small silos: The storage capacity ranging between 5 to 100 tons and built of galvanized iron sheets, wood or concrete.
B – Terminal Silo: The range is between 500 to 500,000 metric tons.
The normal shape of the silos is a ring where the internal forces generated due to grain within the store pushing horizontally on the walls as well as vertically on the bottom (floor of the store).
Either in silos, which are made of sheet iron, where the wall thickness slightly when compared to a thickness of the concrete walls of the silo, the walls to absorb these forces be better than the silo concrete.
Different factors which are seen in the selection of building materials for silos including:
• Ease of maintenance
• Ease of instruction
• Construction time
• Surface smoothness
• Availability of technology to construct the silo
• Construction cost
• Service life
• Storage capacity
• Methods of loading and discharging
CONCRETE SILOS FOR GRAIN STORAGE
A search found that the silos in the Middle East is the concrete silos because of availability of raw materials to create a silo and thus the lack of cost and age of the silo tobe long compared to the rest of the types of silos.
In addition, the concrete silo is characterized by pressure to unaffordable transportation, cleaning and most important hoist of which is the largest part in the building.
Concrete silos are more resilient to external conditions and more solid.
• Foreign weather conditions such as rain, snow and temperatures and thus, it may affect the moisture grain stored up or dismiss moisture content and therefore losses during storage.
• Cracked walls one main disadvantages of the concrete silos where the loss of a large amount of stored grain addition, these cracks are good insects shelter.
• The process of maintenance of concrete silos is very difficult and expensive compared to other species and take a long time.
There are also some advantages of concert silo make it more widely used metal silo:
• Concrete silos are typically lower in cost than metal silos.
• Concrete silos have good resistance to corrosion. This includes both corrosion of internal walls due to the stored bulk solid and also external corrosion caused by moisture. Metal corrosion is a well-known problem.
• No need for expensive painting of silos due to corrosion thus lowering operational cost.
• There is no concern about electrolytic effects at welds or liner connections.
• Careless detailing of metal walls may leave inward facing ledges or welds, which can obstruct flow and increase wall pressures. This is avoided with concrete.
• Concrete is better able to resist abrasive wear than most metals.
• Concrete is more robust and thus better able to withstand internal pressure loads and impact loads.
• Concrete has higher wall friction angles with most bulk solids than most metals. This results in higher frictional drag down the cylinder walls and hence lower pressures acting normal (i.e. perpendicular) to cylinder and hopper walls.
• There is no concern about weld quality or stress risers, such as bolted connections.
• There is no concern about leakage to the environment.
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