World Legume Market and Turkey
08 April 20149 min reading
The most outstanding pulses in terms of production amount is bean throughout the world. According to the data of 2012; the most important part of the bean production which is approximately 22.5 million tones throughout the world is realized in Asia and America. In the world’s legume production, chickpea follows bean with the production quantity of 11,6 million tons and pea with the production quantity of 9,8 million tons.
Including lentil, chickpea, bean, pea, fava bean and cowpea; legumes are the protein source for more than 2 billion people in the world. They are low in fat, high in carbohydrates and nutritious. In human nutrition 22% of the vegetable proteins and 7% of the carbohydrates; in animal nutrition 38% of the proteins and 5% of the carbohydrates are obtained from legumes.
Constituting the main source of vegetable proteins in nutrition, edible legumes are significantly important for the world and Turkey. They are the grain products coming after cereals in the cultivation of field crops in terms of cultivation area and production. It is a product group that has a production value of 50 million tons and market value of 40 billion dollars. However; world legumes production has decreased in the recent years as the countries encourage corn and some other plants for biodiesel production. The importance of this plant group has been understood better with the decreasing production due to the reasons like drought, etc. recently in developing countries especially like Turkey.
Constituting approximately 74% of the total area on which field crops production is made in Turkey, grains rank first and edible grain legumes that constitute 8.3% rank second. Crop rotation with chickpea and lentil in dry areas and bean in wet areas is important in terms of increasing yield obtained per unit and decreasing the fallow land.
WORLD LEGUMES PRODUCTION AND THE PLACE OF THE COUNTRIES
With pulses production being widespread around the globe, countries generally specialize on one or two pulses products. Dry bean production is strong in Asian and American countries, pea production in Asian, African and American countries, pulses production in Asian, African and European countries, lentil production in American and Asian countries, kidney-bean production in African countries and green pea production in European and American countries.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) data; the global pulses production which was 55 million tons in early 2000s was approximately 48 million tons in 2007 and above 47 million tons in 2008. Constantly increasing over the 5 year period between 2000 and 2005, the pulses production has been decreasing since 2005 and neared the 2000 production in 2007. The decrease in the pulses production has various reasons. The Canadian producers’ not wanting to take their chances and reducing lentil production due the increased subsidies in USA and North American producers not wanting to farm dried beans, drought in Australia and Turkey and the low prices are among these reasons. A great part of these issues still continue today and legumes production cannot increase significantly. FAO’s data shows that world legumes production was between 47 and 48 million tons in the period between 2010 and 2012.
The decrease in the global pulses production was a result of the decreased efficiency as well. The efficiency of the global pulses production decreased 5% in 2007. This decrease is majorly caused by the African countries (-15.6%). The efficiency in the developed countries is higher than the efficiency in the developing countries. While the efficiency per hectare in the continent of America is 1,168kg, it is 475kg in Africa. World legumes production increased again in the years after 2008. In the sum of all varieties of pulses; the production reached nearly 50 million tons level in 2009 and exceeded 53 million tons in 2010.
On the product basis, it is seen that the most grown pulses was dried beans and the production of dried beans along with kidney-beans was approximately 21 million tons in 2009. Declared to be 23.2 million tons in 2010, dried bean production was followed by pea with 10.9 million tons and green beans with 10.2 million tons in the same period. Horse bean and lentil come after these products. In 2010, horse bean production was 935 thousand tons and lentil production was 3.3 million tons. When FAO data is taken into basis; the increase between 2008 and 2012 was as follows: world dry bean production, which was 20,9million tons in 2008, reached 23,5 million tons in 2012. Chickpea production reached 11,6 million tons from 8,6 million tons, lentil production to 4,5 million tons from 2,8 million tons. On the other hand, pea production decreased to 9,8 million tons from 10 million tons.
When it is reviewed in terms of cultivation area; it is seen that 29 million hectares of agricultural area is separated for dry bean, 12 million hectares for chickpea, 6 million hectares for pea and 4 million hectares for lentil cultivation. An important part of these cultivation areas are in Asia.
Considering the countries, India holds the first place in the global pulses production with a share of approximately 25%, followed by Canada, Myanmar, the People’s Republic of China and Brazil. Turkey’s place in the global pulses production change between 8 and 10 based on the year.
WORLD PULSE CONSUMPTION AND TRADE
80-85 percent of produced pulse vegetables are consumed in the country of production, while remaining 10-15 percent is subjected to global trade. Canada is the leading country is pulse vegetable trade. Especially following 1990s, Canada has developed its production capacity and export volume, being the dominant partner in world pulse vegetable share. As per 2006, Canada performs 25.4 percent of pulse vegetable export of the world. Canada is followed by USA, being the second leading producer, then China, Australia Argentina, France, Turkey, and Mexico. Being the fifth largest export source in the World, Turkey's share is 6.7 percent.
Again, according to 2006 values, India is the leading importer of pulse vegetables, performing 10 percent of global import. The country is followed by Pakistan with 6 percent as well as Spain and USA with 5 percent each. Turkey's share in global pulse vegetable import volume is 1.7 percent.
Value of world pulse trade has evaluated to be 5,1 billion dollars as per the year 2007. Pulse trade, increasing by six percent in the last five years, corresponds to a volume of 10,2 million dollars in 2007. Pea is the main product with 37 percent share in world pulse vegetables export.
World pulse trade has a volume of approximately 10.2 million tons as per 2007 data. When value of granular pulse food export of 2006 is taken into consideration; it can be said that haricot bean has the highest export value with 1.298 million dollars, followed by pea with 880 million dollars. Even though pea has an importantly higher share than haricot in terms of volume, haricot still dominates the value leadership with its higher average export price. Following pea, products with the highest export value seem to be lentil, chickpea and broad bean.
When FAO data is reviewed for more current values; it is seen that dry bean export amount reached to 3,3 million tons and export value reached to 3.074 million Dollars in 2011. Export amount of pea that was exported mostly on amount basis reached to 4,8 million tons and export value reached to 1,946 million dollars.
PULSES PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF TURKEY
Dry legume fields in Turkey have decreased significantly over the last 20 years. The total dry legume fields which were 18 million decares in 1992 decreased to 7.7 million decares in 2012. It increased a little in 2013 and reached to 8 million decares. The total legume production has decreased around 50% as a result. Despite the decrease in fields, efficiency has risen in most legume products; however, this efficiency has not increased the total legume production. As a result, the total legume production which was 2.1 million tons in 1992 decreased to 1.1 million tons in 2012 and 2013.
When the production amount on product basis is reviewed; it draws attention that highest production is for chickpea. According to TUIK data; chickpea production of Turkey, which was 650 thousand tons in 2002, decreased to 506 thousand tons in 2013 by declining 150 thousand tons in the last 10 years. The second highest production amount after chickpea belong to red lentil. Red lentil production, which was 500 thousand tons in 2002 and increased to 580 thousand tons in 2006, declined to 106 thousand tons in 2008 and then reached to 395 thousand tons in 2013 by increasing a little in the following years. However, this increase is cannot bring red lentil production close to the level 10 years ago. While the production amount of dry bean as another important product was around 250 thousand tons in 2002, it has declined to 195 thousand tons today.
When we look at the legumes consumption in Turkey; annual consumption per capita was 15.5 kg in the 2010/11 season, the total consumption amount was 1.1 tons in the 2007/08 season and 1.2 million tons in 2010/11 season. Pea has the highest consumption ratio among legumes. Pea consumption which was 412 thousand tons in Turkey in the 2007/08 season increased to 473 thousand tons in the 2010/11 season. Pea was followed by red lentil with 449 thousand ton consumption in the 2010/11 season.
Turkey’s import in dried legumes group continues to increase day by day because of the decreasing agricultural fields and production. The total legume import which was 148 thousand tons in Turkey in the 2007/08 season increased to 304 thousand tons in the 2010/11 season. The highest imported amount among the legumes group belongs to red lentil. The total red lentil import which was 141 thousand tons in 2009 season reached 309 thousand tons in the 2011 but declined to 199 thousand tons level in 2013 by decreasing a little in the following years.
According to the data of TUIK; the imports in chickpea as another important product have increased significantly especially in the last 2 years. Chickpea import, which was 4 thousand tons in 2009, reached to 34 thousand tons in 2012 and 56 thousand tons in 2013. In dry bean, the situation is vice versa. Dry bean import, which was 53 thousand tons in 2009, decreased to 28 thousand tons in 2012 and 24 thousand tons in 2013.
Like in the import; largest share in Turkey’s legumes export belong to lentil. Lentil export, which was 130 thousand tons in 2009, reached to 212 thousand tons in 2011 but was realized as 197 thousand tons in 2012 and 178 thousand tons in 2013 by decreasing a little. Chickpea follows lentil in export. However; while Turkey exported 88 thousand tons of chickpea in 2009, this amount decreased to 25 thousand tons in 2012 and 19 thousand tons in 2013.
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