The demand for durum wheat which is used as raw material in pasta and bulghur production has been on increase. The global cultivation area of durum wheat is estimated to be around 16.7 million hectare. Global durum wheat production is estimated to have reached to 38 million tons in the same season. The leading producer countries are primarily Canada, Italy and EU countries.
Durum wheat which is consumed commonly in the whole world is derived from a Latin word “durum” meaning “hard”. High protein content and hard structure make durum wheat convenient to be used for special purposes. The most widely known one is pasta. Durum wheat which has bigger size than the other types has also endosperm that gives yellow color to pasta. Semolina is made when durum wheat is grinded and it is used in the production of specific pasta and special bread types.
Durum wheat is not only used in pasta production but also in couscous and bulghur production. Durum wheat of which endosperm structure is quite hard intense yellow colored pigments of it raises the quality of pasta while increasing the efficiency of semolina. Being rich in protein, mineral and vitamin, makes durum wheat a nutritious food.
That the demand for pasta is increasing as it has practical usage, long shelf life and nourishing features and that bulghur as a healthy and tasteful food product has gradually become popular in recent years point out that the need for durum wheat will increase too.
WORLD DURUM WHEAT PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
The global cultivation area of durum wheat is estimated to be around 16.7 million hectare. According to International Grain Council (IGC) data, global durum wheat production which was 34.9 million tons in 2010/11 season reached to 36.7 million tons by increasing nearly 2 million tons. Although a decrease of 1.5 million tons in 2012/13 season was observed it is estimated that durum wheat production in 2013/14 season increased to 37.7 million tons. According to the forecasts, there will be a little fall in durum wheat production and it will decrease to 33.5 million tons.
It is estimated that total supply of durum wheat in 2013/14 season is close to 42.5 million tons and consumption has reached to 35.8 million tons. According to The International Grain Council (IGC) Report, global durum wheat consumption was 38 million tons in 2009/10 season. Durum wheat consumption which decreased gradually in 2010/12 and 2011/12 season remained as 35.6 million tons by decreasing in 2012/13 season too.
EU is the leader producer in global durum wheat production. However a significant decrease in the production of durum wheat in EU countries has been observed in the recent years. The production rate of 9.1 million tons in 2010/11 season decreased to 8.2 million tons in 2011/12 season and to 7.9 million tons in 2012/13 and 2013/14 season. In the season of 2014/15, it is estimated that the decrease will continue and durum wheat production will be around 7 million tons.
Canada follows EU countries with 6.5 million tons in terms of durum wheat production in 2013/14 season. In 2010/11 season, Canada produced 3 million tons of durum wheat, in 2011/12 season 4.2 million tons, and in 2012/13 season it reached to 4.6 million tons. It is forecasted that durum wheat production will decrease to 5 million tons in 2014/15 season.
Italy comes right after Canada with 4 million tons in terms of durum wheat production in 2013/14 season. Italy produced nearly 4.1 million tons of durum wheat in 2010/11 and this decreased to 3.9 million tons in 2011/12 season and it reached to 4.2 million tons again in 2012/13 season. It is possible to say that the other leading producers are Turkey, Algeria, Mexico, Kazakhstan, Morocco, France, USA and Spain.
WORLD DURUM WHEAT TRADE
World durum wheat trade which was 7.6 million tons in 2009/10 season decreased to 7.3 million tons in 2010/11 season. Global durum wheat trade which remains as nearly same in 2011/12 season reached to 7.4 million tons in 2012/13 season. It is estimated that 7.5 million tons of durum wheat was traded in 2013/14 season.
Leading countries in durum wheat import are Algeria and EU countries. Algeria imported 1.3 million tons in 2010/11 season. Imports rate showed an increase in 2011/12 season and reached to 1.8 million tons. However it decreased nearly 200 thousand tons in 2012/13 season and the country’s durum wheat import rate decreased to 1.6 million tons. Along with the ongoing decrease in 2013/14 season, 1.400 tons of durum wheat is estimated to have been imported.
EU imported 1.9 million tons of durum wheat in 2010/11 season. Imports rate which was recorded as 1.8 million tons in 2011/12 season and 1.4 million tons in 2012/13 season is estimated to have been 1.9 million tons in 2013/14 season. Other important importers are Morocco, USA, Tunis, Venezuela and Japan.
The leading countries in global durum wheat export are Canada and 28 countries of EU. Canada operates more than half of the global durum wheat export alone. Durum wheat export which was 3.1 million tons in 2010/11 season increased to 3.8 million tons in 2011/12 season. Showing a steady increase, Canadian durum wheat export rate increased 430 thousand tons and reached to 4.2 million tons. It is estimated that 4.4 million tons of durum wheat was exported in 2013/14 season.
Durum wheat export of EU countries was 2 million tons in 2010/11 season while it is estimated as 1 million tons in 2013/14 season. Mexico, USA and Australia follow Canada and EU in durum wheat export.
DURUM WHEAT PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) data, durum wheat cultivation area in Turkey is 12.7 million decares in 2013. Yield per decare is approximately 252 kg between 2004 and 2013 (in 2013, 319 kg) and durum wheat production in 2013 was 4 million tons.
Durum wheat production of Turkey by years examined, it shows a changeable graphic between 2004 and 2013. According to Turkish Statistical Institute data, the highest production rate of durum wheat in Turkey between 2004 and 2013 was reached in 2004. Durum wheat production rate which was 5 million tons in Turkey decreased to 2.7 million tons in 2007. The production which was 3 million 300 thousand in 2012 showed an increased in 2013 and reached to 4 million 75 thousand tons.
DURUM WHEAT IN FOREIGN TRADE OF TURKEY
According to Turkish Grain Board, 2013 Grain Report data, durum wheat import of Turkey remained changeable between 2006 and 2013. Import rate which was around 130 thousand tons between 2007 and 2009 decreased in 2010 and 2011. It showed a significant increase in 2012 and recorded as 217 thousand 583 tons. It also reached to the highest rate of last 8 years and around 588 thousand 539 tons of durum wheat was imported in 2013. Increase in export of finished products in Turkey has an important role in this significant increase of imported durum wheat in 2013, which is used in pasta production.
Durum wheat export of Turkey is also changeable. The highest export rate was reached in 2010 and almost 345 thousand tons of durum wheat was exported. This rate decreased to 1.883 tons in 2011. Durum wheat export in 2012 was 43 tons and 135 tons in 2013.
As it is understood from this chart, Turkey, which is generally a self-sufficient country in terms of wheat, barley and corn production, imports raw materials to meet the need as its finished product export has been increasing.
Sources - Kaynaklar
1. Toprak Mahsulleri Ofisi-Turkish Grain Board (TMO), 2013 Yılı Hububat Raporu
2. International Grain Council (IGC)
3. World Durum Outlook, Chris Gillen, CWB, Lisbon, June 2013
4. 2014 Durum Outlook, Erica Olson, NDWC Market Specialist, November 2014
5. World- and US durum wheat production in 2014, U.S. Wheat Associates, November 2014