Wheat around the world is mainly available in two colours (white & red). In this article, I will present an analytical comparison of different wheat around the world and their flour quality, based on over 20 million tons of personal wheat milling with 20 years of data.
Dr. Irfan Hashmi
Chief Technical Officer
Essa Al-Ghurair Investment
Wheat around the world is mainly available in two colours (white & red) and is categorised mainly due to the bran colour. Internally there is also an effect on the endosperm colour as white wheat endosperm is creamy.
Harvest yields in red wheat are better than white wheat. White wheat is preferred in most of the Asian, Middle Eastern & East African countries due to its end-product perception as well as better extraction.
Growing Regions: White Wheat
is mainly grown in Australia, Pakistan, Iran, India, Turkey, France, USA (few grades only) and Canada (few grades only ). Red wheat is grown in all other countries.
Table-1 Wheat around the world
All Australian milling wheat
is white and major grades based on protein level are APH, AH, APW & ASW. Little quantity of red feed wheat is also grown in Australia. All Australian wheat has low moisture content.
in Asian countries (Pakistan, Iran & India) are mainly white with medium protein, low moisture and higher screenings, while Kazakstan grows medium to high protein red wheat
and Saudi Arabia grows high protein red wheat at times with very low moisture and very high screening.
France and Turkey grow white wheat
in Europe, while all other countries (ie. Russia, Sweden, Germany, UK, Poland, CIS countries etc) grow medium protein red wheat with medium to high moisture and low screening.
Large portions of the North American wheat
is red wheat with range of protein levels (HRS, DNS, HRW, SRW) in the USA and (CWRS, CPSR in Canada) while some white wheat are also grown (HW, SW in the USA) and (CWSW) in Canada. Most wheat grown in North America has higher moisture with low screening. Countries in South America (ie. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) mainly grow medium protein red wheat with low to medium moisture and higher screening.
Table-2 Flours around the world
An analytical comparison of different wheat around the world and their flour quality are presented in tables 1 & 2 which are based on over 20 million tons of personal wheat milling with 20 years of data. It can be observed from this data that wheat quality parameters (ie. moisture, protein, test weight, falling # and screening) and flour quality parameters (ie. protein, wet gluten, gluten index, water absorption and stability) are quite different form each other due to different growing conditions (ie. soil, climate and harvesting techniques) as well as the varieties used (same variety behaves differently under different soil and climate conditions).
About the author
Dr. Irfan Hashmi is a UAE-based world-renowned food scientist. He is at present working as Chief Technical Officer” with Essa Al-Ghurair Investment. He has over 30 years of working experience at senior level positions in the Middle East, USA & Australia in processing and quality in the fields of Milling, Oilseed crushing & refining; Pasta & Noodles; Bakeries & Biscuit Industries; ISO/HACCP/Food Safety; Grist Management & Harvest surveillance; Innovation & R&D; Premixes/ enzymes; Health based products and Flour & Oil Fortification. Dr. Hashmi has maintained a high profiled relationship within the core business industry in Australia, North America, Europe, South East Asia, Sub-Continent, Middle East & Africa and demonstrated cost saving modules by commercially advantageous recommendations.
He was instrumental in setting up the initial wheat specification in Pakistan during the nineties. He was invited by the US Wheat Associates, American Soybean Association & Food Fortification Initiative to present technical papers, lectures, training programs, conduct ongoing research & share technical protocols with customers. Dr. Hashmi is an Australian citizen and speaks English, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi and Arabic.