“Good flour” and “bad flour” concepts are used, but they are not correct. The correct way of using the word is whether the flour is suitable with its purpose of use or not. The flour produced for steam bread is bad for a pita maker, but the flour produced for pita is named as ban by steam bread maker.”
Murat AKSOY - ABP Co.
Bread is one of the main nutritional sources of humanity. Although it seems simple to produce that; the local diversity, difference of production processes and difference of raw material characteristics make it a complicated product that needs care. This misperception about bread is also valid for flour, the raw material of bread. Those people out of the flour production sector think of the same thing when we say “flour”; but for those people who are within the sectors of bread making, biscuit, pastry, flour has several different meanings. These differences are physical, chemical and technological. For a user at home, flour from every factory is same with each other, but for industrial producers, this is different.
“Good flour” and “bad flour” are used, but they are not correct. The correct way of using the word is whether the flour is suitable with its purpose of use or not. The flour produced for steam bread is bad for a pita maker, but the flour produced for pita is named as ban by steam bread maker. The real problem is whether the flour is suitable to use for its purposes or not. Flour is the main raw material for bread and it has differences in behavior in terms of physico-chemical structure, diagrammatical features of factory, and the feature of additives, if used. These features begin with examining the wheat from which the flour is produced and continues until flour transport.
CHOOSING THE GENES OF FLOUR
The sentence used in bakery sector “required bread cannot be made from improper flour” is also valid for flour production. It is almost impossible to manufacture the required flour from improper wheat. Choosing the wheat for the flour is choosing the genes of flour and it has impacts until the final product. Therefore, almost all of the flour factories use several methods to determine the features of wheat entering into the factory. The most important parameters in the examination of wheat quality are the moisture of wheat, its weight as hecto liter and protein/gluten amount. Protein gives the basic information about the basic structure of flour to be produced from that specific kind of wheat. NIT/NIR systems are widespread and the measurement is done in very short time (e.g. 1 minute) by those. Considering the fact that a factory receives 50-100 full trucks of wheat during a harvest term; the short period for this analysis is a unique advantage for the wheat producer and factory. On the other hand, sedimentation analysis, one of the chemical analysis on wheat, gives information about the wheat’s stink bug impact with the modified value.
PURPOSIVE FLOUR MILLING PROCESS
Importance of raw material is as important as the appropriateness of the flour. At this point, the laboratory that provides the quality control and the technical expert at the factory will work in coordination and they make interventions if necessary. Te most common adjustment at this point is the tightening of roll balls or expanding them. The ranges of roll balls directly affect the harm on starch of flour. The rate of harmed starch directly affects the lifting property of water, upheaval during baking and crust structure. This process was mechanical until recent years and now there are analytical methods used. With the help of devices providing short-term analysis results, the process is continuously under control. Also, the quality evaluations conducted on the quality of protein until today have moved a step forward with the analysis of starch that generates approximately 70 % of flour. With the measurement of harmed starch, quality of starch and total flour are taken under control; and with accurate adjustment of roll balls, requested energy and amortization saving will be done for the business.
QUALITY CONTROL OF FLOUR IN BAKERY
The real quality control is made during the process conducted before transportation. These analyses will prevent the existence of complaints or return from customers by determining whether the flour is produced for purpose or not. These controls can be gathered under three main titles: physical, chemical and technological.
First one is the physical property of flour. It is also done by eye, whether there is “peak” an the whiteness rate of the flour are analyzed. Peak is the name given for the points of granule structure of flour which are higher than expected, and it is seen as small dots on the flour. If the peak is high, this means that there is high level of bran in the flour and this is an unwanted case. The whiteness of flour can be determined by eye, and it is very important in south, especially for those companies exporting to Iraq. In Iraq, it is requested that flour to be as white as possible, and customers consider this as an important quality criteria. These two parameters can be analyzed by eye and also other analytical methods can be applied. Especially NIR/NET module with integrated CCD ultra high resolution by computer systems, is able to provide with flour and Peak count displayed at the “L” whiteness value. These systems can now be integrated into the process and can provide information to the lab sampling every 10 seconds. In this way, so that the Peak may occur in the measurement of height, bran, tears, or standard white flour production press can be followed in real time.
For the assessment of the flour quality, determination of chemical properties that is in the second row, the content of flour is associated with the content and how strong it is. For example, the gluten content of the flour produced is one of the most important criteria. When the flour is combined with water, the dough is able to be elastic so that the protein gluten, which provides structure for the content and quality of each manufacturer is extremely important. At the same time utilizing again NET/ NIR technology in flour moisture, ash, protein content can be obtained. In general, the quantitative characteristics of wheat and chemical properties of the raw material is directly linked to the structure.
Beyond the technological properties of the flour tortilla flour chemical and physical properties most important in terms of the evaluation point. Where the rheological properties are determined from this analysis of the process of being bread flour, kneading the dough, resting (fermentation), is useful for predicting how it will behave during the cooking stages. Here is first analyzed how much water and kneading the dough, the flour that the stage of becoming so resistant to remove. Mixing the pulp of which is known as stability this feature gives you information about how they should be written in what time. Then the reputation of the dough during the fermentation stage very high Alpha-amylase activity relates to. Wheat, inherent or enzyme Alpha-amylase activity of the dough can be added later and how it could influence the pore structure and how the structure of the crust of the bread will be is determined accordingly. At the same time the fermentation stage of the dough during the baking, as well as within the body of gas as how much it can hold is also important. This is both the quality of the yeast that is used is related to both the elastic properties of flour. There are also devices available to determine analytically these properties, and graphical/numerical information. Most of the industry are familiar with tortilla, bakery and the most frequently used parameters in conducting the assessment of phase values determined with the energy Alveographical or extensograph-resistance measurements. The values obtained in this analysis; As the resistance of the weight of the dough, how the dough could resist Elongation as how much can base dough as elasticity and energy as the rotational disposition of the old structure after processing the firing phase, that can show how much activity. The present methods of analysis have to be performed only by experts in most constant temperature over the behavior of protein structure is expressed in the form of showing. Starch structure to flow behavior (viscosity) and during the cooling phase, the crystal structure of the ability to return to the staling issues could not be identified in this analysis. The visibility of these features with the ability to operate over different mixing temperatures are used in new generation Devices. These devices heat only added to his reputation as well as kneading the flour and the behavior against the behavior of additives because they can measure the effect in a very sensitive extensive R & D activities are used.
FUNCTIONALITY OF FLOUR INGREDIENTS
In recent years, European countries have used to date flour and bakery in studies on physical, chemical and technological considerations in addition to the determination of the functionality of the flour component, the researcher has gained popularity by circles. The functionality of a component, that component is roughly worked, so brought it instead of how the task of how to apply. Which are two main components of flour protein and starch components of pentose, which also had a major impact on the entire structure as well as functionality are investigated. Component functionality has so far been made the subject of research by academics, but in recent years the name is frequently used in the industry. In industrial environments, the amount of flour manufactured or imported raw materials does not apply when the content is sufficient, the sufficient amount at hand does not fulfill the function of that component that should be of no use to agree. So far the only academic analysis of this topic in both methods, gold flour mill laboratories is cumbersome and time is slow. The development for this new work had to be done and the need for companies to quickly and accurately as respond to this analysis.
The quality of flour to be produced varies with assorted bread. Bakeries, Pitta bread, steam bread, Hamburger buns, toast bread, flour for toasted breads with a lot of variety, such as producers, their production is to improve every day and adjust accordingly. If it needs the result of that research went one step further each passing day, leads the industry to follow for years by leading companies in this industry who have served and are intertwined with innovations in their own fields.