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Grain and Flour Market in Congo and Central Africa

06 October 20177 min reading

Grain production in Democratic Republic of Congo is primarily corn and millet. According to the data of US Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS), the country which produced 1,2 million tons of corn in 2015/16 season, is estimated to product same amount in 2016/17 season. The leading products in Central African Republic’s grain production are corn and sorghum. Central African, which produced 90 thousand tons of wheat in the 2015/16 season, is estimated to produce the same amount of corn in the 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons. Sorghum production of country is around 25-50 thousand tons. 

ulkeWhile corn and millet are in the foreground in the grain production of Democratic Republic of Congo, corn and sorghum are in the foreground in the grain production of Central African Republic. However, Democratic Republic of Congo, whose production is not self-sufficient, imports wheat that it does not produce. Economy of Democratic Republic of Congo is withstanding agriculture. 70 per cent of the population lives in the countryside. The agricultural sector’s contribution to GNP is about 40 percent. Agriculture is usually carried out by small farmers using traditional methods. Sugar, cotton, coffee, cocoa, palm oil, rubber, tea are important products. Central African Republic’s economy is predominantly based on agriculture and mine exports. Although the country has fertile lands and abundant water resources, production remains low. On the other hand, both agricultural production and production in other fields are also an important issue for the Central African Republic, which does not go out to sea.

CONGO’S POSITION IN WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION Grain production in Democratic Republic of Congo is primarily corn and millet. According to the data of US Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS), corn production of country was recorded as 1,1 million tons in the 2014/15 season and 1,2 thousand tons in the 2015/16 season. It is predicted that corn production, which was 1,2 million tons in 2016/17 season, will remain same in 2017/18 season.

Another important product that Democratic Republic of Congo produces is millet. Democratic Republic of Congo, which produced 44 thousand tons of millet in the 2014/15 season, increased its millet production to 50 thousand tons in the 2015/16 season. However, in the 2016/17 season Democratic Republic of Congo is estimated to produce same amount. It is predicted that Democratic Republic of Congo will produce same amount in 2017/18 season.

The leading product in Democratic Republic of Congo’s grain consumption is corn. According to the data of USDA, the country consumed 1,2 million tons of corn in the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons, and it is estimated that it has consumed 1,2 million tons of corn in the 2016/17 season. Democratic Republic of Congo is expected to consume the same amount in 2017/18 season. With regard to the consumption of wheat, it is seen that around 254-690 thousand tons was consumed between 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. The estimated consumption for the 2016/17 season was 645 thousand tons. It is predicted that Democratic Republic of Congo will consume 665 thousand tons of wheat in 2017/18 season. Democratic Republic of Congo’s sorghum consumption was around 44-50 thousand tons in 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. And the estimated consumption for the 2016/17 season and the predicted consumption for 2017/18 season are 50 thousand tons.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC’S POSITION IN WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION Corn and sorghum are in the foreground in Central African Republic’s grain production. Central African Republic which produced 173 thousand tons of corn in the 2014/2015 season decreased it to 90 thousand tons of corn in the 2015/16 and 2016/17 seasons. It is predicted that Central African Republic will again produce 90 thousand tons of corn in 2017/18 season. The second most produced grain product is sorghum. Central African Republic produced 25-51 thousand tons of sorghum between 2014/15 and 2016/17. It is predicted that Central African Republic will produce 25 thousand tons of sorghum in 2017/18 season.

It is seen that the leading products in Central African Republic’s grain consumption are corn and sorghum. Corn consumption was 173 thousand tons in the 2014/15 season and 90 thousand tons in the 2015/16 season. It is estimated that Central African Republic consumed 90 thousand tons of corn in 2016/17 season. The amount of corn consumption predicted for Central African Republic for the 2017/18 season is the same. Central African Republic’s sorghum consumption is estimated to be 25-51 thousand tons between 2014/15 and 2016/17 seasons. It is predicted that Central African Republic’s sorghum consumption will be 25 thousand tons in 2017/18 season.

CONGO & CENTRAL AFRICAN IN WORLD GRAIN TRADE The amount of corn and wheat that Democratic Republic of Congo produce is not sufficient and Democratic Republic of Congo imports especially corn and wheat. According to USDA data, 625 thousand tons of wheat were imported in 2014/15 season, and this amount rose to 653 thousand tons in the 2015/16 season. It is estimated to import 580 thousand tons in the 2016/17 season. It is predicted that Democratic Republic of Congo will import 650 thousand tons of wheat in 2017/2018 season. Democratic Republic of Congo which imported 44 thousand tons of millet in the 2014/15 season is estimated to have imported 35 thousand tons of corn in the 2016/17 season. Corn import is predicted to decrease to 30 thousand tons in 2017/18 season. The amount of corn and millet that Central African Republic produces is sufficient. So country does not import grain.

FLOUR INDUSTRY IN CONGO & CENTRAL AFRICAN According to The Logistics Capacity Assessment (LCA), MIDEMA which is the largest milling company in Democratic Republic of Congo, directly employs more than 300 workers and indirectly creates thousands of jobs through its customers and the milling industry. MIDEMA’s customers include bakers, distributors and “mama mikate” (street retailers). The milling industry and has more than 1,000 bakeries, which use an average of 30 workers and deliver bread to more than 50 vendors, resulting in 80,000 indirect jobs.

The daily output of the milling industry totals 15,000 45 kg bags of wheat flour. Each 45 kg bag provides the Congolese at least 6 million loaves a day. There are now numerous private investors from Lebanon, India and Pakistan creating small to medium sized mill businesses in addition to large companie.

Manioc, peanuts, corn, millet, rice, cottonseed, bananas, plantain, coffee are grown in the narrow areas of agriculture in the Central African Republic. Also, according to The Logistics Capacity Assessment (LCA), MAÏSCA (Maïserie Centrafricaine) is the only mill in the Central African Republic, established in 2003. Gritz: 42% - Flour for human consumption: 40% - Flour for animal consumption (provenderie): 10% - Germ: 8%

FLOUR TRADE IN CONGO & CENTRAL AFRICAN According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), wheat flour exports from Democratic Republic of Congo ranged between 371 tons and 2 thousand 975 tons between 2010 and 2013. Country which exported 2 thousand 975 tons of wheat flour in 2010, reduced this amount to 371 tons in 2011 with a record decline. In 2013, wheat flour export was not realized. And import of wheat flour by Democratic Republic of Congo was between 38 and 56 thousand tons between 2010 and 2013. Democratic Republic of Congo, which imported 40 thousand tons of wheat flour in 2011, increased this amount to 41 thousand tons in 2012 and decreased to 38 thousand tons in 2013.

According to FAO data, Central African Republic has not exported wheat flour. Import figures of country, which supply consumption with imports, also show a decline. Central African Republic imported between 18 thousand and 35 thousand tons of wheat flour between 2010 and 2013. The wheat flour import of the country was realized as 25 thousand tons in 2010 and this amount increased to 30 thousand tons in 2011. The wheat flour import, which increased to 35 thousand tons in 2012, decreased to 18 thousand tons by reducing per cent 50 in 2013.

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