Grain production in Colombia is predominantly corn and rice. According to the US Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS), it is estimated that Colombia’s corn production, which was 1.7 million tons in the 2015/16 season, will remain the same during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons. The leading crop in Ecuador’s grain production is corn. It is estimated that Ecuador’s corn production, which was 1.4 million tons in the 2015/16 season, has dropped to 960 thousand tons in the 2016/17 season. According to the USDA forecast for the 2017/18 season, corn production in Ecuador will fall to 820 thousand tons.
According to the US Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service’s (USDA FAS) report titled “Grain and Feed Annual 2016”, Colombia and Ecuador’s grain production is predominantly of rice and corn. Colombia’s main agricultural products are coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugar cane, cocoa, oil seeds and vegetables. Colombian grain production was influenced by the drought that arose due to the La Nina atmosphere phenomenon in 2016. Corn production will fall by 1.7 million tons in the 2016/17 season. It is estimated that the paddy production has increased to 2 million tons in the 2016/17 season.
Ecuador, which is self-sufficient in rice production, can import a small quantity of rice when harvest is low due to weather conditions. Rice consumption in Ecuador is 49 kilograms per person per year. Ecuador’s wheat production is very small. Ecuador also exports rice and a small amount of corn to Colombia.
COLOMBIA’S PLACE IN GLOBAL GRAIN PRODUCTION
Grain production in Colombia is predominantly of corn and rice. According to the US Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS), it is estimated that Colombia’s corn production, which was 1.7 million tons in the 2015/16 season, will remain the same during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons.
Colombia’s another important product is rice. Colombia produced around 1.2 million tons of rice in the 2014/15 season, raising this amount to 1.4 million tons in the 2015/16 season. USDA predicts that rice production in Colombia which is estimated to produce 1.7 million tons of rice in the 2016/17 season will decrease to 1.5 million tons during the 2017/18 season.
The leading crop in Colombia’s grain consumption is corn. According to the USDA data, the country consumed 5.8-6.1 million tons of corn between the 2013/14 and 2015/16 seasons, and it is estimated that it consumed 6.3 million tons of corn again in the 2016/17 season. The corn production for the 2017/18 season is estimated to be 6.7 million tons. When we look at the consumption of rice, we see that it was around 1.5-1.6 million tons between the periods of 2013/14 and 2015/16. The consumption for the 2016/17 season is estimated to rise to 1.7 million tons. It is predicted that Colombia will consume 1.8 million tons of rice in 2017/18 season.
ECUADOR’S PLACE IN GLOBAL GRAIN PRODUCTION
In Ecuador’s grain production, corn and rice top the list. Ecuador, which produced 1.1 million tons of corn in the 2013/2014 season, increased its production to 1.4 million tons during the 2015/16 season. Ecuador is estimated to produce 960 thousand tons of corn during the 2016/17 season. The amount of corn production foreseen in Ecuador for the 2017/18 season is 820 thousand tons. The second most produced grain product is rice. Ecuador’s rice production between 2013/14 and 2016/17 vary between 660 and 790 thousand tons. It is predicted that Ecuador will produce 690 thousand tons of rice in 2017/18 season.
The corn and wheat are Ecuador’s leading grain consumption items. Corn consumption was 1.3 million tons in the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Ecuador, which is estimated to have consumed 1.2 million tons of corn in the 2016/17 season, is expected to consume the same amount of corn in the 2017/18 season. The wheat consumption of Ecuador, which consumed around 605-935 thousand tons of wheat between the 2013/14 and 2015/16 seasons, is expected to be 1.2 million tons in the 2017/18 season. Rice consumption was 710-741 thousand tons between 2013/14 and 2016/17. In the 2017/18 season, rice consumption is expected to be 740 thousand tons.
COLOMBIA AND ECUADOR’S PLACE IN GLOBAL GRAIN TRADE
As the production of corn and wheat is not sufficient in Colombia, it mainly resorts to the imports of corn and wheat. According to USDA data, 4.4 million tons of corn were imported during the 2013/14 season and it increased to 4.7 million tons in the 2016/17 season. In the 2017/18 season, Colombia is expected to import 5 million tons of corn. Likewise, Colombia, which imported 1.7 million tons of wheat in the 2013/14 season, is estimated to have imported 2 million tons of wheat in the 2016/17 season. The import of wheat for the 2017/18 season is estimated to be 2.1 million tons. Colombia also imports barley and rice in small quantities. It is estimated that Colombia imported 285 thousand tons of barley and 110 thousand tons of rice during the 2016/17 season.
In Ecuador, the grain imports are predominantly of wheat. Ecuador imported 616 thousand tons of wheat in the 2013/14 season, and this amount was 949 thousand tons in the 2015/16 season. In the 2016/17 season, it is estimated that Ecuador imported 1 million tons of wheat. The import of wheat for the 2017/18 season will also be at the same level. In respect to the corn, the country imported about 13-200 thousand tons between the 2013/14 season and the 2016/17 season. The amount of corn that will be imported by Ecuador during the 2017/18 season is estimated to be 400 thousand tons.
FLOUR INDUSTRY IN COLOMBIA AND ECUADOR
According to the report on Colombia at Foodexport.org, the milling industry benefited from innovations in the fields of furnaces and starch sector, packaging, sweetener and healthy ingredients. Bread consumption has been reduced as low carbohydrate and healthy nutritional trends have marginally changed food habits. The wheat milling and bakery industry is running campaigns to show that bread is a nutritious and healthy option for consumers, and continue to challenge by adding new ingredients to take advantage of this trend.
Although wheat imported by Ecuador is primarily used in the production of bread and pasta, more wheat has been used in animal feeds lately. It is estimated that in the 2016/17 season, 325,000 tons of wheat were used for the production of animal feed. Despite Ecuador’s economic slowdown, consumption of wheat and rice will increase moderately in 2017/18 due to population growth. In the 2016/17 season, imports of rice will fall due to the low yield of local production.
FLOUR TRADE IN COLOMBIA AND ECUADOR
According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Colombia’s wheat flour exports ranged from 869 tons to 3,200 tons between 2010 and 2013. Colombia, which exported 3,200 tons of wheat flour in 2011, reduced it to a record low of 2,000 tons in 2013. Colombia’s imports of wheat flour were between 997 tons and 3,000 tons between 2010 and 2013. Colombia imported 2,655 tons of wheat flour in 2011, reducing this amount to 997 tons in 2013.
According to FAO data, Ecuador, which exported 737 and 291 tons of wheat flour in 2010 and 2011 respectively, increased this amount to 421 tons in 2012 and decreased to 110 tons in 2013. The import figures of Ecuador, which supply consumption with imports, indicate a decline. It imported 6,700 and 13,892 tons of wheat flour between 2010 and 2013 respectively. The wheat flour imports of the country were realized as 11,000 tons in 2010 and this amount increased to 13,892 tons in 2011. The wheat flour imports, which decreased to 11,000 tons in 2012, decreased to 6,700 tons in 2013 with a record decline.