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Grain and Flour Market in Chad, Mali and Niger

07 July 201514 min reading
As in many African countries, sorghum and millet are among the most important grains in Chad, Mali and Niger. It can be seen that sorghum has the highest amount in Chad’s grain production. According to USDA data, sorghum production of Chad was 745 thousand tons in 2013/2014 season and this amount has increased to 900 thousand tons in 2014/2015 season. Millet is the most important grain in Mali and Niger. Chad has reached the highest amount of millet production in 2012/2013 with 1,7 million tons. This amount was 1,1 million tons in 2013/14 season and then it reached to 1,6 million tons in 2014/15 season. In Niger, millet production was 2,9 million tons in 2013/14 season and it has reached to 3,2 million tons in 2014/15 season. kapoaksdosasChad was a French colony until 1960s and it gained independence following a 30 year lasting civil war. Chad is located in Central Africa, south of Libya and it is mostly covered by the Sahara Desert. Its capital is N’Djamena and it has a population of 11, 4 million. According to Human Development Index of United Nations, Chad is the seventh poorest country in the world and 32 per cent of its economy is based on service sector. It is considered that 80 per cent of Chad lives below the poverty level. According to CIA World Factbook, 80 per cent of the population is engaged in agriculture. Mali is a West African country, located in the west of Niger, southwest of Algeria and north of Guinea; and it is the eighth biggest country in Africa. Mali was a French colony and it was ruled under dictatorship until 1991. There are revolts and clashes caused by local armed militants today. Mali has a warm and arid climate during the summer, and it is rainy and humid during the winter. It has a population around 16,4 million and 39 per cent of them live in urban areas. Niger has gained its independence from France in 1960 and had a single party military government until 1991. The first democratic government was established in 1993 and it is considered as one of the poorest countries in the world due to its limited economic conditions. Niger is located in West Africa, south east of Algeria and it usually has a desert climate, and tropical climate can be seen only in its southernmost corner. Only 12 per cent of its land is cultivable land. Draughts are very often and it is considered as one of the most important natural disasters in the country. Niger has a population around 17,4 million and 18 per cent of them live in urban areas. GENERAL ECONOMIC OVERVIEW Chad has no shore to the sea and the main livelihoods are oil and agriculture. 60 percent of the export income is from oil; followed by cotton, cattle and small cattle. Chad is economically dependent to foreign aid. Service sector consists one third of country income. It has been enlisted under Poor Countries with Heavy Debt in April 2015 and all its debts were delayed. Mali is one of the 25 poorest countries in the world, with no sea shores. 80 percent of Mali’s export income rests on cotton and gold, and it has limited its economic activities mostly in the irrigable land around the Niger River. 65 percent of its lands are desert or semi desert. 10 percent of the population is nomadic and 80 percent is employed in agriculture and fishery. Mali is also dependent on foreign aid, similar to Chad. Niger is located in Sub-Saharan region, and its economy is mostly dependent on agricultural products, small cattle and uranium reserves. Agriculture consists 40 percent of its economy. United Nations has declared Niger as the least developed country of the world in 2014. Food insecurity, lack of industry, high fertility rate and poor education system are among the reasons of this. Country is heavily dependent on foreign aid. THE POSITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE Agriculture consists 54 percent of Chad’s economy. Main agricultural products in the country are cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice and cassava. 80 percent of the population is employed in agricultural industry. The production areas for the most important agricultural products of the country, sorghum and millet, have been decreasing since 1950s. The ratio of sorghum and millet in all agricultural land is 85 percent. Rice plantation has spread to a greater area since the French occupation. In Mali, 80 percent of the population is employed in agricultural industry. But, 29 percent of the population cannot be fed due to low productivity, crop loss after harvest, undeveloped market and bad climate conditions. Main products are cotton, millet, rice, corn, peanut and several vegetables. 38 percent of country’s income is dependent on agriculture. Cultivable land in the country is around 5,4 percent. The most important factors that affect the agricultural productivity in the country are erosion, desertification and water scarcity. 12,3 percent of Niger’s land is cultivable and 37 percent of country’s income depends on agriculture. In Niger, agriculture is considered as the main economic activity and 90 percent of the population is employed in agricultural industry. Agricultural industry depends on internal market and subsistence farming. Niger is a Sub-Saharan country and it produces millet, sorghum, cassava and rice. GRAIN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN CHAD When the United States Department of Agriculture foreign Agriculture Service (USDA FAS) data is reviewed, it can be seen that sorghum has the highest amount in Chad’s grain production. Sorghum production was around 400 and 650 thousand tons between the seasons 2003/04 and 2011/12; this has risen to 1 million and 172 thousand tons in 2012/13 season. It has been recorded that the sorghum production in Chad was 745 thousand tons in 2013/14 season and 900 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. Sorghum conception was between 450 and 600 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2005/06 seasons in Chad and this remained around 600 thousand tons between 2006/07 and 2011/12 seasons. Chad consumed 1 million and 100 thousand tons of sorghum in 2012/13 season and this amount has decreased to 800 thousand tons in 2013/14 season. The amount of sorghum consumed in 2014/15 season was 850 thousand tons. Millet production in Chad has time to time decreased between 2003/04 and 2009/10 seasons, but it has reached to 590 thousand tons and then to 600 thousand tons in 2010/11 season. This amount has decreased by half in 2011/12 season to 319 thousand tons, and then reached to 847 thousand tons in 2012/13 season. The production amount has decreased in the following 2 seasons; to 582 thousand tons in 2013/14 season and reached to 683 thousand tons in 2014/15 season, but could not exceed the amount of 2012/13 season. It is seen that the millet consumption of Chad is similar to its production amount. Another grain produced in Chad is corn. The amount of corn produced in the country between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons is between 100 and 200 thousand tons. Chad produced 226 thousand tons of corn in 2008/09 season, continued to produce around 200 thousand tons until 2012/13; and this amount has risen to 340 thousand tons in 2012 and 390 thousand tons in 2013/14 season. The amount of corn produced in 2014/15 season is 350 thousand tons. It is seen that the corn production is in parallel with production. According to this, Chad has consumed corn between 100 and 200 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2008/09 seasons; and this amount has increased to 201 thousand tons in 2008/09 season. Corn consumption has risen to 300 thousand tons in 2012 season, and it has reached to the peak by 350 thousand tons in 2013/14 season. The consumption amount in 2014/15 is 325 thousand tons. Wheat production in Chad is little if any. Highest production was reached to 30 thousand tons in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons between 2003/04 and 2014/15 seasons. On the other hand, consumption rate is higher than production. Between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons, 50 to 85 thousand tons of wheat was consumed in Chad, and this amount has risen to 253 thousand tons in 2008/98 season. The amount of consumption has decreased below 200 thousand tons in the following seasons; and it has been recorded as 255 thousand tons in 2013/14 season and as 265 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. GRAIN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN MALI The grain product mostly consumed and produced in Mali is millet. Millet production of Mali in 2003/04 season is 1 million and 260 thousand tons. This amount has decreased to 975 thousand tons in 2004/05 season. The production of millet has increased between 2005/06 and 2011/12 seasons and differed between 1,1 million and 1,4 million tons. Highest amount of millet production was reached in 2012/13 season with 1,7 million tons. The amount of production has decreased again in 2013/14 season to 1,1 million tons and risen to 1,6 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is seen that the consumption is similar to production. Another grain produced in Mali is corn. Mali has produced corn that amounted between 450 and 700 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2008/09 seasons; and this amount has risen to 1i4 million tons in 2009/10 and 2010/11 seasons. Corn production in the country has decreased to 1,3 million tons in 2011/12 season, but it has reached to the highest amount by 1,7 million tons in 2012/13 season. Corn production in Mali was 1,5 million tons in 2013-14 season and 1,6 million tons in 2014/15 season. It can be seen that the consumption was in parallel with the production rates. Corn consumption in the country was between 400 and 700 thousand tons between the 2003/04 and 2009/10 seasons and this amount has risen to 1,1 million tons in 2010/11 and 2011/12 seasons. Corn consumption has increased to 1,2 million tons in 2012/13 season and moved back to 1,1 million tons in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Another grain produced and consumed is rice. Rice production was between 450 and 750 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons, then gradually reached to 1 million tons in 2008/09 season, 1,2 million tons in 2009/10 season and 1,5 million tons in 2010/11 season. Rice production has decreased to 1,1 million tons in 2011/12 season, and then reached to 1,2 million tons in 2012/13 season and 1,4 million tons in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Rice consumption is in parallel with rice production. But rice consumption is a little bit more than rice production. 1,1 million tons of rice was consumed in 2008/09 season, and this has increased to 1,3 million tons in 2009/10 season and 1,4 million tons between 2010/11 and 2013/14 seasons. Rice consumption continued to increase and reached to 1,5 million tons in 2014/15 season. Sorghum is another grain product which is importantly produced and consumed in Mali following millet, rice and corn. Mali has produced below 1 million tons of sorghum between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons, and the production of sorghum has reached to more than 1 million tons between the seasons of 2008/09 and 2012/13. The highest amount of production of the last 10 years was reached in the season of 2009/2010 with 1,4 million tons. Sorghum production has decreased in the following years and was 820 thousand tons in 2013/14 season. The amount of production has increased again in 2014/15 season, reaching to 1,3 million tons. As in other grain products, sorghum consumption has very similar amounts with its production. The consumption was below 1 million tons between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons; and this amount has risen above 1 million tons between 2008/09 and 2012/13 seasons, reaching to 1,3 million tons. In 2013/14 season, the sorghum consumption was around 950 thousand tons and this amount was 1,2 million tons in 2014/15 season. GRAIN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN NIGER As in Chad and Mali, millet and sorghum are the mostly produced grain types in Niger. When we look at millet production in Niger, we see that over 2 million tons were produced between 2003/04 and 2005/06 seasons. This amount has reached to 3 million tons in 2006/07 season. Even though the amount of production has decreased in the following years, it was always above 2,5 million tons. Highest production amount was reached in 2012/13 season with 3,8 million tons. The amount of millet produced in 2013/14 season was 2,9 million tons, followed by 3,2 million tons in 2014/15 season. It is seen that the millet consumption in Niger is completely same with the amount produced. Sorghum protection is on a rise in Niger. The amount of production was below 1 million tons between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons, and it reached to 1,2 million tons in 2008/09 season. It has decreased below 1 million tons from time to time; but reached to 1,3 million tons in 2012/13 season, then moving back to 1,2 million tons in 2013/14 season. The amount of sorghum produced in 2014/15 season is 1 million tons. Sorghum consumption has a similar graph. Sorghum consumption was below 1 million tons between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons and it reached to 1 million tons from time to time until 2012/13 season. In 2013/14 season, the highest amount of consumption in the last 10 years was reached by 1,1 million tons. Sorghum consumption in 2014/15 season is 900 thousand tons. Rice production in Niger is little if any, and rice consumption is below 400 thousand tons. The amount of consumption has reached to a maximum of 240 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2008/09 seasons. Consumption was 318 thousand tons in 2009/10 season, and it gradually increased to 326 thousand tons in 2012/13, to 344 thousand tons in 2013/14 and to 362 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. GRAIN TRADE IN CHAD, MALI AND NIGER As in many African countries, grain production in Chad is to meet the consumption and as the produced amount could not meet the requirements, it is being imported. Therefore, exports are very rare. The most important product for Chad’s grain import is wheat. Chad tries to balance the increasing wheat consumption through import. Chad has imported less than 100 thousand tons of wheat between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons. In the following years, this amount has risen above 200 thousand tons and reached to the peak of 297 thousand tons in 2009/10 season. In 2013/14 season, imported wheat amount is 225 thousand tons. In 2014/15 season, this amount was 235 thousand tons. Import of sorghum, rice and corn is also very low. Chad has almost 50 thousand tons of import of these grains in order to meet the internal requirements. When we look at the import amount of Mali, we see that rice and wheat take the lead. It can be seen that rice import was between 100 thousand and 150 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2014/15 seasons. It is observed that Mali’s wheat import started in 2010/11 season. Mali has imported 164 thousand tons of wheat in 2010/11 season, which has risen to 244 thousand tons in 2013/14 and to 275 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. As for Niger’s grain import, we see that rice is the most imported product. Niger has imported around 100 thousand tons of rice in 2003/04 season, and this number has gradually increased, reaching to 260 thousand tons in 2009/10 season. Rice import has risen to 275 thousand tons in 2011/12, to 280 thousand tons in 2012/13, to 300 thousand tons in 2013/14 and to 310 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. Second most imported product is wheat. Wheat import did not exceed 50 thousand tons between 2003/04 and 2007/08 seasons, and it turned to be more than 250 thousand tons since 2008 season. Wheat import was 245 thousand tons in 2013/14 and 255 thousand tons in 2014/15 season. Sorghum import is very low. An average of 50 thousand tons of sorghum was imported between 2003/04 and 2011/12 seasons; and this has dropped to 25 thousand tons in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. FLOUR CONSUMPTION CULTURE A majority of the population is poorly fed in African countries such as Chad, Mali and Niger which could not have the sufficient productivity in agriculture due to economic circumstances and bad climate and geographical conditions. When we look at flour within the consumption culture, we see that cassava flour, corn flour and millet flour are used. It is observed that bread consumption in Chad depends on bread made of millet and sorghum flours. Millet and sorghum are commonly consumed as flake. In Niger, it is known that the starchy products consumed by people are made of millet and rice.
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